Development and Transfer of Technologies for Scientific and Technological Advice
Promoting and enhancing action on the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies to States, in particular developing countries is critical to supporting action on mitigation of greenhouse gases and adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort, as appropriate, is supported by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial Mechanism, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to States, in particular developing countries.
Urgent efforts to reduce greenhouse gases emissions need to take place against the backdrop of a growing international energy demand. In the World Energy Outlook 2009, International Energy Agency estimates, based on government policies and measures enacted or adopted by mid- 2009, that in 2030 world primary energy demand will be 40% higher than in 2007. However, 90% of this increase is expected to take place in non-OECD countries. In addition, 77% of the worldwide energy demand increase will be based on using fossil fuels. At the same time, 1.3 billion people will still lack access to electricity in 2030.
The Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT)5 estimates that the additional financing needs for dealing with the above energy and climate challenge span a range of USD 262–670 billion per year, which is around three to four times greater than the current global investment levels in energy technologies (EGTT, 2009a). Of this amount, USD 100 - 400 billion annually is needed in developing countries.
Mitigating greenhouse gases emissions is only one aspect of climate policy. Equally important will be the need to reduce countries’ vulnerability to climate change impacts, so that the sustainable livelihoods and ecosystem services on which people depend can be protected. This will require adaptation measures in order to increase countries’ resilience in areas like: health and social systems; agriculture; biodiversity and ecosystems; production systems and physical infrastructure, including the energy grid.6 A number of developing countries have already carried out assessments of adaptation measures needed.7 These can be used to inform other countries.
Within this overall development and climate policy context, a key step for countries is to select technologies that will enable them to achieve development equity and environmental sustainability, and to follow a low emissions and low vulnerability development path.
The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund recognises the need for an effective and progressive response to the urgent threat of climate change on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge,
The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund share a long-term vision on the importance of fully realizing technology development and transfer in order to improve resilience to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
To strengthen cooperative action on technology development and transfer, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is noting the importance of technology for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions and recognizing existing technology deployment and dissemination efforts.
A technology framework is hereby established to provide overarching guidance to the work of the Technology Mechanism in promoting and facilitating enhanced action on technology development and transfer in order to support the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions in pursuit of the long-term vision.
Enhanced action on technology development and transfer
The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund facilitate and enhances North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms. Including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the Global Bank Group level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism.
The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund promotes the development, transfer, dissemination, and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to States, in particular developing countries on favorable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed.
The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund will fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism by 2018 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology.
The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund enhances the scientific and technical work on disaster risk reduction and its mobilization through the coordination of existing networks and scientific research institutions at all levels and in all regions, with the support of the Global Bank Office for Disaster Risk Reduction Scientific and Technical Advisory Group. In order to strengthen the evidence-base in support of the implementation of the present Framework, the DRRRF;
- promotes scientific research on disaster risk patterns, causes, and effects; disseminate risk information with the best use of geospatial information technology;
- provides guidance on methodologies and standards for risk assessments, disaster risk modeling and the use of data;
- identifies research and technology gaps and set recommendations for research priority areas in disaster risk reduction;
- promotes and support the availability and application of science and technology to decision-making;
- uses post-disaster reviews as opportunities to enhance learning and public policy; and disseminate studies;
- takes enhanced action on technology development and transfer to support action on mitigation and adaptation, including consideration of:
- effective mechanisms and enhanced means for the removal of obstacles to, and provision of financial and other incentives for, scaling up of the development and transfer of technology in order to promote access to affordable environmentally sound technologies;
- ways to accelerate deployment, diffusion, and transfer of affordable environmentally sound technologies;
- cooperation on research and development of current, new and innovative technology, including win-win solutions;
- the effectiveness of mechanisms and tools for technology cooperation in specific sectors.
Climate Technology Centre and Network
The Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) is the implementation body of the Technology Mechanism. It facilitates the transfer of technologies through three core services:
- Providing technical assistance at the request of developing countries to accelerate the transfer of climate technologies;
- Creating access to information and knowledge on climate technologies, particularly through its knowledge management system;
- Fostering collaboration among climate technology stakeholders via its network of regional and sectoral experts.
The Climate Technology Centre and Network is hosted by the Global Bank and is supported by partner institutions. The Centre facilitates a network of national, regional, sectoral and international technology centres, networks, organisations and private sector entities. The Climate Technology Centre and Network is accountable to and under the guidance of the CTCN Advisory Board. Developing countries may send a request to the Climate Technology Centre and Network via their nationally selected focal point called a national designated entity.
To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF and the Frequently Asked Questions Section of the DRRRF Website Section.
For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://www.global-bank.org
|1||Acidification of the oceans is a simple chemical consequence of increasing GHG concentration levels.|
|5||The Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT) was established at COP7 (Marrakech, 2001) and reinstated at COP13 for another period of five years (Decision 3/CP.13) with the objective of enhancing the implementation of UNFCCC Article 4.5, including, i.a., by analysing and identifying ways to facilitate and advance technology transfer activities and making recommendations to the SBSTA (http://unfccc.int/ttclear/jsp/EGTT. jsp).|
|6||See for example CEC (2009).|
|7||See for instance the national adaptation programs of action prepared by developing countries at <http://unfccc.int/cooperation_support/least_developed_countries_portal/items/4751.php>|