DRRRF

THE GLOBAL BANK
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
AND RECONSTRUCTION FUND

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DRRRF Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

 

DRRRF FAQs

DRRRF Frequently Asked Questions

The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) provide basic information on Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund (DRRRF). Designed for the general public and to those specifically involved in development work, it describes briefly and in question-and-answer format, the structure, objectives, philosophy and activities of DRRRF. For ease of use, it is divided into Sub-Topics: ...See the 10 Most Viewed FAQs

How many financing windows will be made available through the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) will feature three windows: 1) a Sustainable Public Sector Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Window (for public sector projects); 2) a ‘Sustainable DRM Window’ (the DRR Window) which is published separately on the DRRRF’s website at www.gbDRRRF.org; and  3) the Crisis Response Window

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

How is the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Managed and Governed?

The governance and organizational structure of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) includes an Administrator, a DRRRF Board of Directors, a Steering Committee, a Management Committee, a Technical Advisory Board, a Grants Committee, a DRRRF Secretariat and a Trustee, plus three working groups. This sound framework will enable the DRRRF to adapt to changing circumstances and development priorities, with consistency and consensus.

Background details of board members, advisers, technical advisers, experts or persons of similar status to these committees that are participating in the Governance and Oversight of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund are provided in the Management and Organization Section of the Section of the DRRRF Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the role of the DRRRF Steering Committee?

The DRRRF Steering Committee (the “DRRRF Steering Committee”) has been established to oversee the overall activities of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”). The DRRRF Steering Committee sets the strategy for the DRRRF, which the DRRRF Management Committee is responsible for implementing. Decisions of the DRRRF Steering Committee are made on a consensus basis and informed by the working groups.

For the Background details of the DRRRF Steering Committee are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the role of the DRRRF Management Committee?

The Management Committee (the "DRRRF Management Committee”) is responsible for overseeing the operations of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”). It also reviews the DRRRF finances and makes recommendations to the DRRRF Secretariat on the management of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the role of the DRRRF Technical Advisory Committee?

An independent DRRRF Technical Committee (TAC) has been appointed by the DRRRF Steering Committee to provide the due diligence screening of submitted proposals as input for decisions to be made by the DRRRF Steering Committee.

The DRRRF Technical Advisory Committee is comprised of members with a high level of experience and technical expertise in helping countries integrate disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change adaptation into development strategies, establish policies and grant investment programs, including post-disaster recovery and reconstruction through the increased implementation of priority housing reconstruction and climate-smart infrastructure projects including the reviewing of Proposals submitted for financing by the requesting countries or entities from the of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”).

The DRRRF Technical Advisory Committee’s role is to provide recommendations to the DRRRF Steering Committee on a set of indicative allocations of financial support through a technical review of the submitted proposals.

For the background details of the DRRRF Technical Committee are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the role of the Global Bank in the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund?

Global Bank plays three roles: (1) Manager (to carry out fiduciary responsibilities as set out in the Global Bank DRRRF Administration Agreement), (2) The DRRRF Secretariat (a small team to support the DRRRF Steering Committee and DRRRF Technical Advisory Committee and facilitate communications between the DRRRF Steering Committee and the other partners of DRRRF), and (3) Supervising Entity of DRRRF funded and granted projects. The Global Finance and Investment Corporation (GFIC), the Global Bank Group’s private sector arm, manages the Sustainable Private Sector Disaster Risk Management Window of the DRRRF. Additionally, Global Bank's Development Impact Evaluation Initiative (DIME) has been selected by the DRRRF Steering Committee to implement in-depth impact evaluations for selected DRRRF Sustainable Public Sector Disaster Reduction and Recovery Window projects.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and How we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the role of the DRRRF Gender Working Group?

The DRRRF Gender Working Group was established as a sub-group to the DRRRF Strategy Group to shape the objectives and operational pillars of the individual post-disaster recovery and reconstruction projects gender strategy. The Gender Working Group is supported by the Global Bank’s gender team in the country offices.

The DRRRF Gender Working Group will: (i) review gender aspects of DRRRF-financed activities; (ii) share knowledge and expertise on innovations in gender as they relate to the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”); (iii) propose recommendations on how gender aspects can be better captured in the DRRRF Results Management Framework; and (iv) provide support for gender mainstreaming in DRRRF portfolio management, pipeline development and new initiatives. Interested parties will be invited to participate in project review and decision meetings to provide input on gender-related aspects where relevant, with the approval of the DRRRF Management Committee.

For the background details of the DRRRF Gender Working Group are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The case for The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) is a lead Global Bank Group agency working on many areas of resilience and disaster risk reduction (DRR) that are of critical importance globally.  It is hosted by the Global Bank.  The DRRRF  to support the States, in particular developing countries to mainstream disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in national development strategies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and the Sustainable Development. As a facility of the Global Bank, it is best placed amongst the development banks to do this. It also helps to build country capacity to manage disaster risks better, such as through the development and adoption of safer school and hospital designs. It has aligned its strategic objectives to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 and supports its implementation, specifically by “Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters.”

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund has prioritized 20 developing countries1, based on their vulnerability to natural disasters – countries that are disproportionately affected by the consequences of global warming (the “vulnerable 20” or the “V20”).  The DRRRF addresses the negative effects of global warming as a result of heightened socio-economic and environmental vulnerabilities. Approximately half these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa; a further 112 have been earmarked to receive Disaster Risk Management funding and technical support through DRRRF. The DRRRF pursues its objectives at the global, regional, and country levels through three Tracks of programming:

  • Track 1:  Global and Regional partnerships:   designed to enhance global and regional advocacy, partnerships, and knowledge management for mainstreaming disaster reduction.
  • Track 2:  Mainstreaming disaster reduction in development:  directed at ensuring risk assessments, risk mitigation, risk transfer, and emergency preparedness are incorporated into all strategic plans and programmes.  Track 2 also includes special initiatives such as the Economics of Disaster Risk Reduction initiative. These will support global, regional and country level efforts to generate economic evidence for disaster risk reduction.
  • Track 3:  Partnership for Sustainable Recovery:  a disaster recovery fund which aims to accelerate the transition from relief to longer-term recovery after a disaster.  This track supports co-operation among stakeholders in post-disaster damage loss and needs assessments globally.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund works in countries after a disaster hits, with a specific focus on recovery and reconstruction.  Post-disaster, DRRRF leads at the country level in preparing, organising and implementing co-ordinated Post Disaster Needs Assessments with key partners.  Globally, these assessments are recognised as an important leap forward in developing co-ordinated recovery operations.  This comprehensive damage and loss assessment provided the foundation for the subsequent the Action Plan for National Recovery and Development. 

The Action Plan for National Recovery and Development articulated the government priorities for recovery, reconstruction, and development. It leads to a shared understanding between the government and development partners of how to help recover and begin the reconstruction process. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is also contributing to harmonisation between development actors and the Government.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is developing a Results-Based Management System.  This framework has the potential to harmonise resilience and disaster risk reduction objectives across countries and with all partners. Greater joining up in this way will ensure that countries progress faster towards achieving the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction Goals 2015-2030, and reducing the loss of lives and assets.  The DRRRF has been instrumental in agreeing the Results Based Management System, and will continue to push for its adoption in all DRRRF’s priority countries.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

 
1Burkina Faso, Djibouti, Ghana, Haiti, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mozambique, Nepal, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Senegal, Solomon Islands, Togo, Ethiopia, Vietnam and Yemen.
2Bangladesh, Cambodia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, LAO PDR, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vanuatu

 

What are the main components of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund?

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) established in October 2017, as a Global Bank Group-supported partnership of donor and recipient countries and international organizations. Created to reduce the risks from natural disasters and promote international and regional cooperation to lessen the vulnerability of developed and developing countries alike, the DRRRF supports on-the-ground technical assistance to help developed and developing countries integrate disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change adaptation into development strategies, policies and investment programs, including post-disaster recovery and reconstruction.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is working to build resilience in vulnerable communities around the globe. The DRRRF is a multi-donor partnership and grant-making financing mechanism. Its purpose is mainstreaming climate change to help achieve the goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 - a decade-long plan to help make the world safer from disasters caused by natural hazards — and to support the implementation of the Global Climate Agreement in Paris, and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR), was adopted at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), held on March 14-18, 2015 in Sendai, Japan, and will guide action on disaster risk reduction worldwide for the next 15 years.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund has three main business lines to achieve its development objectives at the global, regional and country levels.

  • Track 1: Global and regional support to ISDR System: The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) is a committed member of the ISDR system. Together with the ISDR Secretariat, we are formulating a results-oriented work program. This track will support global advocacy, knowledge sharing, support development of information management tools and disseminate and exchange emerging notions of best practice facilitated through global and regional organizations under the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) System.
  • Track 2: Support to countries for developing investment frameworks for disaster risk prevention and mitigation: This track will operate through a multi-donor trust fund and support efforts by developing country governments to enhance investments in risk reduction. Developing a policy option to deal with risks including long-term climate change issues will be made integral to a long-term and sustainable development strategy.1 Countries prone to high disaster risks will be the primary clients. Specific country plans, particularly the Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSs) and Country Assistance Strategies (CASs) will ensure ownership, and implementation follow through.
  • Track 3: Standby Recovery Financing Facility (SRFF): (in pipeline) This Standby Recovery Financing track, proposed to be operated through a mechanism linked to the Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GFIDR), is to support disaster-stricken countries’ immediate recovery needs before medium and long-term recovery programs are formulated and launched. However, a low-income country would be eligible for this only if pre-disaster preparedness and mitigation instruments (Track 2) have been institutionalized in the country, measured in terms of investments in risk reduction as a percentage of GDP or such others measures agreed by the partners of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund. This is being developed in close collaboration with Global Bank’s DRRRF team, and a position paper on this will be available soon for wider consultation.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

 
1Countries with more than 30% population and GDP in areas of risk to one or more hazards (Hotspots Study, The World Bank and Columbia University)

 

What is the mission of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund?

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund”, “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) was established in 2017 by the Global Bank Group (the “Bank Group”) to facilitate the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). It was created to be the focal point in the Global Bank Group for the coordination of disaster risk reduction and ensures synergies among the relevant activities of Global Bank Group agencies and regional organisations, and related activities in socio-economic and humanitarian fields.

DRRRF’s mission is centered on supporting the implementation, follow-up, and review of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, including by fostering coherence with other international instruments, such as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its Sustainable Development Goals, as well as the Paris Agreement on climate change. As such, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund champions and supports the integration of disaster risk management across different areas of work of the Global Bank Group and of its Members and Non-Member States as well as among a broad range of key stakeholders, including the private sector and civil society.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund prevents new and reduces existing disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What are the goals of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund?

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) goal is to prevent new, and reduce existing, disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience.

To support the assessment of global progress in achieving the outcome and goal of the present Framework, seven global targets have been agreed. These targets will be measured at the global level and will be complemented by work to develop appropriate indicators. National targets and indicators will contribute to the achievement of the outcome and goal of the present Framework. The seven global targets are:

The seven global targets are:

  • Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to contribute to lower the average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020–2030 compared to the period 2005–2015;
  • Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to contribute to lower the average global figure per 100,000 in the decade 2020–2030 compared to the period 2005–2015;
  • Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030;
  • Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030;
  • Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020;
  • Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of the present Framework by 2030;
  • Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to people by 2030.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund expected outcome?

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) expected outcome and goal: “The substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries”

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund prevents new, and reduces existing, disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Who is the sponsor of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund?

The sponsor of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF” or “DRRRF”) is the Global Bank.

Owned by the Global Bank Group1, the Bank for International Development and Reconstruction, known as the Global Bank borrows in the international capital markets (“BIDR,” “Global Bank,” or “Bank”) is the Global Bank Group’s long-term sovereign lending institution. As a development bank with an agenda driven by G-7/G-8 and G-20-priorities, its leading priority is to promote global economic and social development. Unlike the multilateral development banks (MDBs)2, Global Bank is not restricted to operating only in developing countries.

For interesting facts about the G-7/G-8 and G20:

The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction is a full-fledged private sector global development bank, in formation, – the world’s second global development bank – positioned next to the World Bank and the preeminent regional development banks (MDBs).

The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction was founded in 2013 to help developed, and developing countries achieve economic and social development through financing primarily public sector (sovereign) infrastructure projects and sustainable development. BIDR is one of five institutions that make up the Global Bank Group. BIDR is the part of the Global Bank Group that works with creditworthy countries to promote sustainable, equitable and job-creating growth, reduce poverty and address issues of regional and global importance.

Global Bank’s main goals are to end poverty and hunger and to achieve sustainable development in its three dimensions through promoting inclusive economic growth, protecting the environment, and promoting social inclusion.

The Global Bank’s activities are focused on developing countries, in fields such as human development (e.g. education, health), agriculture and rural development (e.g. irrigation and rural services), environmental protection (e.g., pollution reduction, establishing and enforcing regulations), infrastructure (e.g. roads, urban regeneration, and electricity), large industrial construction projects, and governance (e.g. anti-corruption, institutions development).

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For more information about the Global Bank, what we do and how we do it, please go to the About Us Section of the Global Bank Website at http://www.global-bank.org

 
1Global Bank Group, consisting of five institutions, represents, develops and supports the collective interests of its business interests around the world. One of these institutions is The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction known as the Global Bank,(“BIDR,” “Global Bank,” or “Bank”).  Global Bank is a full-fledged private sector global development bank, in formation, with legal and regulatory rights including formal approval to utilize the term "Bank" pending – the world’s second global development bank – positioned next to the World Bank and the preeminent regional development banks (MDBs).  The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction borrows in the international capital markets.
2The Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) are institutions that provide financial support and professional advice for economic and social development activities in developing countries. The MDBs provide financial and technical support to developing countries to help them strengthen economic management and reduce poverty. Together, the MDBs provide support to the world's poorest in every corner of the globe, strengthening institutions, rebuilding states, addressing the effects of climate change, and fostering economic growth and entrepreneurship.

 

What is the mandate of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund?

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) was established in 2017 by the Global Bank Group (the “Bank Group”) to facilitate the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). It was created to be the focal point in the Global Bank Group for the coordination of disaster risk reduction and ensures synergies among the relevant activities of Global Bank Group agencies and Funds and Programmes, and related activities in socio-economic and humanitarian fields.

The purpose of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is mainstreaming climate change to help achieve the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 - a decade-long plan to help make the world safer from disasters caused by natural hazards — and to support the implementation of the Global Climate Agreement in Paris, and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR), was adopted at the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), held on March 14-18, 2015 in Sendai, Japan, and will guide action on disaster risk reduction worldwide for the next 15 years.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the role of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund?

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) have the responsibility for coordinating the Global Bank Group relief efforts globally. These relief efforts include: (a) bringing risk reduction investments to the scale necessary to enable countries to achieve the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals; (b) supporting client countries to implement the resilience objectives specified in their Nationally Determined Contributions; (c) harmonizing results measurement for Nationally Determined Contributions; (d) increasing the availability and effectiveness of resilience financing for Small Island States; (e) strengthening Disaster Risk Management (DRM) tools and expanding financial solutions for fast-growing cities in the context of rapid urbanization, populations growth, and climate change; (f) increasing access to early warning and risk information; (g) working with the private sector to address gaps in risk financing; (h) assisting countries transfer risk to the markets through the intermediation of risk management transactions; and (i) working with the humanitarian community to address pressing needs, ahead of the World Humanitarian Summit in 2018.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund supports the post-disaster Action Plans for the Recovery and Development and related initiatives. The DRRRF mobilizes, coordinates and allocates contributions from bilateral, multilateral, corporate and other donors to finance high-priority projects reconstruction and programmes and budget support globally.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund provides funding to the most critical humanitarian priorities based on expert advice from aid workers and agreed planning strategies. Funding decisions are made on the ground, allowing GBARTF to respond to evolving needs and to address critical gaps not covered by other humanitarian funding. This enables the humanitarian community to better reach the most vulnerable and to use available resources more effectively and efficiently.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do andhHow we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

 

What are the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Programmes?

Natural and human-induced disasters adversely affect hundreds of millions of people every year. In an effort to minimize the impact on vulnerable populations, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund”, “GB DRRRF” or “DRRRF”) supports various disaster risk reduction (DRR) programs aimed at saving lives; protecting livelihoods, assets, and infrastructure before, during, and after a disaster; and increasing communities’ resilience to natural hazards. The DRRRF programs promote self-sufficiency in disaster risk reduction by strengthening the capacity of governments at all levels and communities to identify, manage, and reduce the impacts of natural disasters through sustainable, multi-sectoral programs, as well as to prepare for and respond to potential crises in a timely and efficient manner.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund and implementing partners engage communities, national and local governments, international and regional organizations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to develop effective disaster risk reduction strategies tailored to the needs of at-risk populations. The DRRRF promotes dialogue and coordinated action among stakeholders to address disaster risk reduction in an integrated and comprehensive manner. In addition to supporting regional and country-level programming related to floods, droughts, cyclones, extreme weather events, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanoes, the DRRRF provides technical assistance and supports global disaster risk reduction initiatives. These initiatives will reduce vulnerability to natural hazards affecting the community or household, as well as build the resilience of the community.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is among the global leaders in supporting worldwide disaster risk reduction activities, as well as participates in larger Global Bank Group efforts. The DRRRF participates in disaster risk reduction globally through membership on governing boards, influencing the development of sound disaster risk reduction policies among key partners, such as U.N. humanitarian agencies. In addition, the DRRRF disaster risk reduction and sectoral experts contribute to the development of technical guidelines and provided technical expertise to host nations on disaster risk reduction.

Many countries face a wide range of challenges and constraints in their efforts to reduce disaster vulnerability. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is implementing activities in various sectors to assist in preparedness for and reduction of disasters worldwide, including agriculture and food security, health, nutrition, economic recovery and market systems, protection, shelter and settlements, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The DRRRF’s efforts focus on reducing the impact of natural hazards in vulnerable regions by enhancing local and regional early warning systems; improving local disaster planning and response, including search and rescue activities; strengthening conceptual and implementation models for improving food security; and building the capacity of international and local partners to reduce countries’ vulnerability to disasters.

Each of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund disaster risk reduction program promotes at least one of the five priorities identified by the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). Those are:

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the Strategic Framework on Development and Climate Change of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund?

In this context, the Strategic Framework on Development and Climate Change for the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) the DRRRF will support specific needs and priorities of its diverse clients. Six action areas — each providing tools for supporting both adaptation and actions with mitigation co-benefits — will allow the DRRRF’s entities to build on their relative strengths, increase its synergies, and partner with external players, basing the division of labor on the comparative advantages and mandates:

  1. Support climate actions in country-led development processes;
  1. Mobilize additional concessional and innovative finance;
  1. Facilitate the development of market-based financing mechanisms;
  1. Leverage private sector resources;
  1. Support accelerated development and deployment of new technologies; and
  1. Step up policy research, knowledge, and capacity building.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the DRRRF’s Comparative Advantage?

Since the adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action in 2005, as documented in national and regional progress reports on its implementation as well as in other global reports, progress has been achieved in reducing disaster risk at local, national, regional and global levels by countries and other relevant stakeholders, leading to a decrease in mortality in the case of some hazards.   Reducing disaster risk is a cost-effective investment in preventing future losses. Effective disaster risk management contributes to sustainable development. Countries have enhanced their capacities in disaster risk management.  International mechanisms for strategic advice, coordination and partnership development for disaster risk reduction, such as the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), as well as other relevant international and regional forums for cooperation such as the Global Bank Atlantic Reconstruction Trust Fund (GBARTF), have been instrumental in the development of policies and strategies and the advancement of knowledge and mutual learning.  Overall, the Hyogo Framework for Action has been an important instrument for raising public and institutional awareness, generating political commitment and focusing and catalysing actions by a wide range of stakeholders at all levels.

Over the same ten-year time frame, however, disasters have continued to exact a heavy toll and, as a result, the well-being and safety of persons, communities, and countries as a whole have been affected. Over 700 thousand people have lost their lives, over 1.4 million have been injured and approximately 23 million have been made homeless as a result of disasters. Overall, more than 1.5 billion people have been affected by disasters in various ways, with women, children and people in vulnerable situations disproportionately affected. The total economic loss was more than $1.3 trillion. In addition, between 2008 and 2012, 144 million people were displaced by disasters.

Disasters, many of which are exacerbated by climate change and which are increasing in frequency and intensity, significantly impede progress towards sustainable development. Evidence indicates that exposure of persons and assets in all countries has increased faster than vulnerability has decreased, thus generating new risks and a steady rise in disaster-related losses, with a significant economic, social, health, cultural and environmental impact in the short, medium and long-term, especially at the local and community levels. Recurring small-scale disasters and slow-onset disasters particularly affect communities, households and small and medium-sized enterprises, constituting a high percentage of all losses. All countries – especially developing countries, where the mortality and economic losses from disasters are disproportionately higher – are faced with increasing levels of possible hidden costs and challenges in order to meet financial and other obligations.

The Global Bank Disaster Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund climate action will be driven by client demand, focusing on those activities that support the Global Bank’s core mission and build on its comparative advantage. The actions proposed a focus on supporting client demand, recognizing that client needs are different. The Action Plan focuses on supporting the Global Bank Group core mission of supporting the economic and social development efforts of the less developed and developing countries as they seek achievement of internationally agreed upon development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration and the Sustainable Development Goals, and to implement the recommendations of major United Nations conferences and summits. The goals lay out a blueprint for the Global Bank Group, setting its priorities and measuring its results. And it builds on the Global Bank Group comparative advantage to tackle complex, multisectoral problems in an integrated way combining all of its instruments (funding, knowledge, and convening power), its local presence, but global reach and experience, its deep technical expertise and multisectoral integration, and its ability to work across both the public and private sectors.

A comparative detail analysis of the Global Bank Disaster Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is available upon request.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What are the operating principles of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund?

DRRRF’s strategy is underpinned by seven operating principles:

  1. Demand-driven approach to ensure maximum impact:  The scale of DRRRF support will be determined by client demand and depend on its ability to make progress with providing additional financing, facilitating the transfer of technology, and building knowledge and capacity.
  1. Leveraging development investments and policies: The DRRRF climate actions will facilitate an effective response to client countries’ demands, by cooperating with national and regional institutions and fostering the mainstreaming of climate dimensions into development. The DRRRF activities are organized along four top-level priorities: (i) Support Transformational Policies and Institutions; (ii) Leverage Resources; (iii) Scale up Climate Action; and (iv) Align Internal Processes and Work with Others.
  1. Empowering women and mainstreaming gender: The DRRRF main­streamed gender equality considerations into the entire project cycle to enhance the efficacy of climate change mitigation and adaptation interventions, starting from the identification of prior­ity interventions to achieve the climate management goals of a given jurisdiction or entity.
  1. Focusing on inclusive design and participation, Leave No One Behind: The DRRRF focuses on three areas of support to democratic governance: (1) Fostering inclusive participation; (2) Strengthening accountable and responsive governing institutions; and (3) Grounding democratic governance in international principles. The DRRRF will assist in the identification of effective interventions strengthening participation by the poorest social sectors, as well as by women, youth, persons living with disabilities, and indigenous people.
  1. Jointly addressing disaster and climate risk: The DRRRF will strive to increase the share of adaptation and mitigation co-benefits, improve resilience by further mainstreaming climate change in country programs, encourage investments in climate-smart infrastructure, promote climate-smart cities and agriculture, and further refine and design contingent instruments to deal with disaster risks.
  1. Developing knowledge and sharing best practices.  The DRRRF conducts global and regional communication campaigns as instruments for public awareness and education. Each builds on the existing ones to promote a culture of disaster prevention, resilience and responsible citizenship, generate an understanding of disaster risk, support mutual learning, and share experiences.  The campaigns encourage public and private stakeholders to engage actively in such initiatives and to develop new ones at the local, national, regional and global levels
  1. Prioritizing a results-oriented approach:  The DRRRF's commitment to improving aid and development effectiveness through development cooperation is reflected in its endorsement of key international agreements. These include the 2005 Paris Declaration, the 2008 Accra Agenda for Action, the 2011 Busan Outcome Document and the 2014 Mexico Communique. The key principles of development effectiveness, defined in the Busan outcome are:
  • Country ownership
  • Transparency and accountability
  • Focus on results

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

How can the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fun help to address disaster risks?

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund”, “GB DRRRF” or “DRRRF”) is working to build resilience in vulnerable communities around the globe. The DRRRF is a multi-donor partnership and grant-making financing mechanism. Its purpose is mainstreaming climate change to help achieve the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 - a decade-long plan to help make the world safer from disasters caused by natural hazards — and to support the implementation of the Global Climate Agreement in Paris, and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR), was adopted at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), held on March 14-18, 2015 in Sendai, Japan, and will guide action on disaster risk reduction worldwide for the next 15 years.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund supports countries around the world in mainstreaming a comprehensive and integrated approach to disaster risk management (DRM) into development. The DRRRF was established in October 20017, as a Global Bank Group-supported partnership of donor and recipient countries and international organizations to further reduce the risks from natural disasters and promote international and regional cooperation and to lessen the vulnerability of developed and developing countries alike. The DRRRF supports on-the-ground technical assistance to help developed, and developing countries integrate disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change adaptation into development strategies, policies and investment programs, including post-disaster recovery and reconstruction.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund disaster risk management activities are part of a comprehensive framework. This framework focuses on five core areas of risk management and systematically addressing each core area: risk identification, risk reduction, emergency preparedness, financial protection, and sustainable recovery and reconstruction.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the proposed solution by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund?

Disaster risk management was universally endorsed as a development priority through the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in 2005. This framework is an agreement signed by 168 governments and international organizations, including the Global Bank Group and the United Nations, to support disaster prevention across the world.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) is responding to the growing demand from its clients, building disaster resilience through five core areas focusing on:

  • Risk Identification: By understanding disaster risks and anticipating the potential impacts of natural hazards, disaster and climate risk assessments can help governments, communities, businesses, and individuals make informed decisions to manage that risk.
  • Risk Reduction: Disaster risk information can inform different development strategies, plans and projects that can, in turn, reduce risks. This can either be done by avoiding the creation of new risks by mainstreaming in new investments, or improved territorial planning or building practices, or by addressing existing risks, such as retrofitting critical infrastructure, the construction of embankment systems, etc.
  • Preparedness: Adequate preparedness measures are essential because disaster risk can never be completely eliminated. Preparedness through early warning systems save lives and protect livelihoods and is one of the most cost-effective ways to reduce the impact of disasters. Preparedness activities need to include actionable contingency plans down to local and community level to respond to the effects of disasters.
  • Financial Protection: Financial protection strategies protect governments, businesses, and households from the economic burden of disasters. These strategies can include programs to increase the financial capacity of the state to respond to an emergency, whilst protecting the fiscal balance. They also promote the deepening of insurance markets at a sovereign and household level, and social protection strategies for the poorest.
  • Resilient Reconstruction: The challenge of reconstruction also presents an opportunity to promote disaster risk management through integrated resilient recovery and reconstruction planning that will drive longer-term resilient development.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What are the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund priority area for action?

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund” or “GB DRRRF”) emphasis is to manage the underlying drivers of disaster risk through enhancing understanding of disaster risk, governance for disaster risk reduction, investment and measures to strengthen resilience, and preparing for recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – Umbrella Trust Fund priority areas are:

  • Priority 1: Understanding Disaster Risk: Understanding disaster risk in its extent and genesis, including its drivers, is particularly critical to the DRRRF in light of the major shift in emphasis on risk present in the expected outcome, and, accordingly, the need to manage risk in and of itself.
  • Priority 2: Disaster Risk Governance: The DRRRF works to strengthen disaster risk reduction governance in its institutional and participatory aspects at national and local levels. While restating the mainstreaming and integration of disaster risk reduction across all sectors, it puts forward a renewed paradigm to achieve it.
  • Priority 3: Investing in Resilience: Priority area III of the DRRRF is particularly dependent on strong coordination and coherence in the development and implementation of sector policies and programs as well as the implementation of international instruments such as those concerning sustainable development, climate change and variability, and financing. The DRRRF makes a strong call for investing more resources in resilience and ensuring that risk-informed investments be made by both the public and the private sectors, and that disaster risk reduction considerations and measures be integrated into financial and fiscal instruments.
  • Priority 4: Preparedness to “Build Back Better”:  Priority area IV of the DRRRF represents an important mix of continuity and innovation. The continuity aspect of the DRRRF is focused on the need to further improve preparedness for response, including through a renewed commitment toward early warning systems, which be multi‐hazards and multi‐sectoral, and the preservation of the functioning of critical infrastructures for the continued provision of essential services. It also includes the anticipation of “cascading disasters,” i.e., disasters which are magnified by multiple, sequential and interconnected hazards. Attention is also given to evacuation and displacement.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrtf.org/about-us/who-we-are

How the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – Umbrella Trust Fund compliments national and local platforms for disaster risk reduction?

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund” or “GB DRRRF”) places particular emphasis on coordination, and especially on the role of national and local coordination multi-stakeholder forums, such as national and local platforms for disaster risk reduction. In particular in the area of risk identification; building knowledge and awareness, including through campaigns; management, including sharing and dissemination of disaster risk information and data; reporting on the status of disaster risk and progress toward implementation of strategies, plans, and policies; and facilitating multi-sector cooperation.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

How does the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund lend its support to planning for recovery, rehabilitation, and reconstruction

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund” or “GB DRRRF”) recognises the need for and gives priority to planning for recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction ahead of disasters. Such initiatives require the engagement of executive and legislative institutions and stakeholders at local and national levels in light of the socio, economic, and political complexities and the coordination requirements. Normative provisions which anticipate and regulate recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction through a Build Back Better approach are essential.

Through Track I, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund works to enhance global and regional advocacy to promote the implementation of the Sendai Framework targets by 2030 in partnership with the United Nations and other international organizations. Through advocacy and continuous engagement with key regional organizations, the partnership will help to elevate disaster risk management (DRM) as a key priority for policy-makers, governments and practitioners, thereby building demand for more targeted country disaster risk management programs, particularly in high-risk, low and middle-income countries.

Climate change has become one of the world’s foremost policy challenges. In line with its mandate and expertise, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund together with Global Bank focuses on the humanitarian, fiscal, financial, and macroeconomic challenges. The DRRRF also advises (e.g., through technical assistance to member countries) on the appropriate design of resilient infrastructure development, carbon pricing and fiscal reforms to promote greener growth more broadly, particularly with regard to getting prices right in energy and transportation systems to reflect environmental costs and building resilience to climate risks.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

How does the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund supports financial innovation in the context of investments for resilience?

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund” or “GB DRRRF”) framework considers the importance of fiscal and financial instruments in the context of investments for resilience and the integration of disaster risk consideration therein.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund address the barrier to finance in adaptation, sustainable agriculture, energy efficiency, renewable energy, disaster recovery and disaster risk insurance with an innovative financial instrument that has the potential for scaling up financing for a low-carbon, climate-resilient economy.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund aims to increase governments’ financial response capacity to natural disasters. The DRRRF is one of the five pillars of the Global Bank - DRRRF’s comprehensive Disaster Risk Management (DRM) framework which promotes the mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in a broader country development agenda. This is in line with the implementation of Priority Action Number Four of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) – to reduce disaster risk by addressing underlying key factors. Additionally, the G20 and Sendai Report have advanced disaster risk management as a crucial area of focus.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund programmes for early warning and disaster response?

Given that disaster risk is on the rise, the continued strengthening of normative frameworks for early warning and disaster response remains of primary importance. Various dimensions would need to be taken into account, such accessibility, multi‐hazard, and multi-sector approach, attribution of powers and resources for local action.

Early warning and preparedness systems have the potential to significantly reduce the loss of life and livelihoods from disasters, simultaneously building resilience and supporting the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The DRRRF’s work in this area supports countries with comprehensive multi-hazard early warning systems, as well as the development of medium and long-term forecasting capacities.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund supports a variety of disaster risk reduction programmes to prevent or minimize damage caused by disasters through early warning systems, disaster preparedness, and mitigation efforts, as well as training for disaster response.

Many the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund programmes improve collection and use of data on disaster risks, including building capacity and infrastructure to observe, analyze, and forecast hazards. These may include mapping hazards, developing people-centered early warning systems, and facilitating the exchange of information on risks. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund also supports the development of information-sharing systems and services, which may involve strengthening networks and promoting dialogue and cooperation among scientific communities and practitioners.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund funds training and learning programs at a community level, for local authorities, and for targeted sectors. Preparedness for response addresses the need to plan for events where managing the risk proves too costly or not feasible. This area of programming directly links disaster risk reduction with disaster management and recovery. In this vein, the DRRRF works to strengthen policy; build technical and institutional capacities; support dialogue, information exchange, coordination and stakeholder engagement; stockpile commodities that may be needed in response; and review and update disaster preparedness and contingency plans.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund supports for Development and Transfer of Technologies for Scientific and Technological Advice?

Promoting and enhancing action on the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies to States, in particular, developing countries is critical to supporting action on mitigation of greenhouse gases and adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort, as appropriate, is supported by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial Mechanism, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to States, in particular developing countries.

Intellectual property rights and patents
In the context of the priority concerning understanding disaster risk, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund identifies the importance of encouraging the availability of copyrighted and patented materials, including through negotiated concessions. These are certainly an area where the DRRRF normative work is of prime importance.

Disaster risk reduction-informed development assistance
International cooperation is essential in managing disaster risk. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund incorporates disaster risk reduction measures into development assistance programmes within and across all sectors.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund support for International cooperation and global partnership?

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) international cooperation encompasses various means of implementation in addition to financial support. Technical cooperation, capacity building, and technology transfer are as instrumental to disaster risk reduction as financing. The emphasis of the DRRRF on science makes technical cooperation, technology transfer, and exchange of experts particularly important.

International cooperation and global partnership is critical to disaster reduction and to post-disaster reconstruction and recovery, and derives directly from the guiding principles enshrined in the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund as all States, particularly developing countries need support to strengthen their capacity to prevent and reduce disaster risk, support that needs to contribute to and complement national efforts.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund fosters coordinated, sustained, and adequate international support. The DRRRF is developing ways and means to incorporate disaster risk reduction measures into development assistance programs within and across all sectors. In this context, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund and Global Bank and other Global Bank Group entities and agencies have a critical role to play through the provision of risk-informed financial support and loans which support the Global Bank Group’s integrated vision of disaster risk management across sectors and the full engagement of institutions and stakeholders.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

How does the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund get involved in a disaster?

Once a disaster has occurred, and the Government has declared a state of emergency, the Government will evaluate the recovery capabilities of the state/province and local governments. If it is determined that the damage is beyond their recovery capability, the governor will normally send a request letter to the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), directed through the Regional Director of the appropriate Global Bank region. The DRRRF Steering Committee then decides whether or not to the DRRRF should get involved.

After a DRRRF Steering Committee decision has been made, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund will designate the area eligible for assistance and announce the types of assistance available.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Is there a way to get money fast in the aftermath of a disaster?

Immediate Needs Funding (INF) is money earmarked for the most urgent work in the initial aftermath of a disaster. The funds may be provided to any eligible applicant for eligible emergency work that must be performed immediately and paid for within the first 60 days following approval by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”). Eligible work typically includes debris removal, emergency protective measures, and removal of health and safety hazards. Immediate needs funds can be used for expenses resulting from this eligible work, such as temporary labor costs, overtime payroll, equipment, and material fees.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the role of the DRRRF Board of Directors?

A five-member Board of Directors (the “DRRRF Board of Directors”) of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) is responsible for overall supervision and control of the Trust Fund. The DRRRF Board of Directors consisting of representatives of the Global Bank Group and bilateral and multilateral international donors.

The background details of the DRRRF Board of Directors are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the role of the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance?

The DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance was created by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) with the aim of assisting the DRRRF, with regards to, for example, transparency, efficiency, and effectiveness in the delivery of climate finance. Furthermore, the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance is designed to improve the linkages and to promote the coordination with climate finance related actors and initiatives within and outside the DRRRF.

The DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance consists of up to twenty members who work together to assist the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund with regards to the Financial Mechanism of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund. Currently, DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance has been assigned four specific functions by the DRRRF Steering Committee to allow it to meet its goal. Firstly, the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance has the function of assisting the DRRRF to improve coherence and coordination in the delivery of climate change financing. Secondly, the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance has the function of working to assist the DRRRF in a rationalization of the Financial Mechanism of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund. The third function of the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance is to support the DRRRF in the mobilization of financial resources for climate financing. Finally, the fourth function is to support the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund in the measurement, reporting, and verification of support provided to developing country.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the role of the DRRRF Secretariat?

The DRRRF Secretariat will be established to support the work of the DRRRF Steering Committee. The DRRRF Secretariat will be housed in the Newport Coast, California offices of Global Bank and will comprise a small team of professional and administrative staff employed by the Global Bank. The DRRRF Secretariat will be headed by a programme manager in the Climate Change Global Practices within the Network Complex and the Regional Complex Department at the Global Bank.

For the Background details of the DRRRF Secretariat are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the role of the DRRRF Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction Working Groups?

The Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction Working Groups and the Strategy Working Group are technical advisory bodies accountable to the Management Committee and representing the wider group of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) donors. Both working groups are regional-based bodies, chaired by the Global Bank Group, with the host Government participation.

For the background details of the Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction Working Groups and the Strategy Working Group are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the role of the DRRRF Trustee?

The Global Bank Group (Bank Group”) is serving as Trustee for the for the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”). The Global Bank Group, in its capacity as the Trustee, will establish the Trust Fund to receive contributions from Donors to the DRRRF and will hold in trust, as a legal owner, and administer the funds, assets, and receipts that constitute the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund.  The Trustee is accountable to the DRRRF Steering Committee for the performance of its functions.

The Trustee will have no responsibility for the use of the Trust Fund funds transferred, and Activities carried out therewith. In particular, the Trustee shall have no responsibility, fiduciary or otherwise, for the implementation or supervision of Activities financed by such funds, including without limitation, any duties, and obligations that might otherwise apply to a fiduciary or trustee under general principles of trust or fiduciary law.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is the role of DRRRF Administrator?

The Global Bank is the Administrator of the DRRRF and is responsible for monitoring and reporting on DRRRF performance. The Bank is in particular responsible for ensuring that funds are allocated in accordance with the Financing Strategy agreed with governments, donors and partner entities and in line with defined and agreed‐upon fiduciary standards and performance measures.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

What is Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (GBIPPF)?

Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”) is the new global service launched by Global Bank President Ron Nechemia in May 2014 to finance infrastructure projects and to address the growing infrastructure deficit. While the Facility is legally and financially separate from Global Bank, with its own capital structure, it will draw on the Bank's operational experience and presence in developing countries. The Facility will lend for long-tenor public sector infrastructure projects through the provision of sovereign loans to developing countries, including public portions of Public-Private Partnership (“PPP”) projects. Those loans, extended to developing countries’ governments and public sector entities, such as state-owned enterprises, form the greater part of the Bank’s development assistance.

The ultimate aim of the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility is to enhance national and regional economic development and integration through the increased implementation of priority infrastructure projects in developing countries and regional projects, including cross-border regional integration infrastructure projects; and national projects with significant regional impact.

Why Global Bank Group chose to sponsor the Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility?

There is a widespread consensus in the international community, including the G20/B20, the Organisation for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD), and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), that international financial institutions (IFIs), including the Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIDR or “Global Bank”) can and should play a significant role in enhancing the delivery of better and more efficiently prepared projects in the infrastructure sector. While the global ‘infrastructure gap’ has been widely discussed, it has been realised that the lack of sufficient infrastructure investment is not due to a lack of finance, but is due to limited project preparation capacity internationally to procure and deliver these often complex projects.

The Global Bank’s response has been to create the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the “Facility”), to be led by the Knowledge Complex – the home to the Global Practices of Global Bank in concert with the six client-facing Regional Vice-Presidencies Units (Regional VPUs). The Facility’s objectives are to: improve the quality, efficiency and replicability of infrastructure projects to be financed by Global Bank for the benefit of its clients; increase project activity financed by the Global Bank over the initial five year period (2016-2021); reach financial closure for a high-proportion of all public–private partnership (PPPs) prepared by the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility; and integrate project preparation with systematic higher level policy dialogue, which will provide policy expertise on public–private partnership and a commercialisation agenda for the Global Bank’s clients.

The Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility will prepare projects in a manner that fits the developmental-driven mandate of Global Bank in the infrastructure sector, namely, to deliver outcomes focused on commercialised approaches, private sector participation, strong environmental and social standards and energy efficiency improvements across the sector.

What is the role of infrastructure services on the economic development?

Infrastructure is key to tackling poverty and promoting inclusive growth. Infrastructure helps improve access to basic services, especially for poor people, links producers to markets and connects countries to the opportunities in the global economy. Well-functioning infrastructure is essential to overcome bottlenecks to growth in emerging and developing economies, and as an enabler of private sector led growth. No country has developed without access to well-functioning infrastructure. At a time when the outlook for global growth is disappointing, investment in infrastructure can play an important role in boosting short-term demand, as well as bolstering longer-term supply capacity.


What is the global infrastructure-financing gap?

The Global Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 trillion per annum to 2020 is required by developing countries to keep pace with consumer and producer demand for infrastructure. To keep pace with projected global GDP growth, the infrastructure financing gap increases to an estimated US$57 trillion over the period to 2030 (MDB Working Group on Infrastructure, 2011). Alternatively, the World Economic Forum estimates that close to US$2 trillion per annum will be required to meet the infrastructure needs of developing economies by 2030 (WEF, 2012).

By consensus estimates from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to the Boston Consulting Group and the World Bank Group, the estimated annual global infrastructure investment need is about US$3.7 trillion – of which only about $2.7 trillion is currently met on an annual basis. The figure does not include ‘development goals’ and emerging market economies (EMEs) would need an additional US$1 trillion per year until 2020 just to keep pace with the demands of urbanisation, growth, climate change and global integration.

This much-discussed “infrastructure gap” is large and it is widening. Even if fiscal conditions in developed and emerging economies improve, the need introduced by the infrastructure financing gap is unlikely to be met from public sources alone. This generates an expectation that private capital and user charges must be mobilized to fill these gaps.

What are the obstacles to a strong infrastructure project pipeline?

Insufficient focus on planning and preparation are significant impediments.

The infrastructure project pipeline is lacking in both quantity and quality. In simple terms, the demand for infrastructure is not being translated into projects (quantity); for projects that are originated, either the fundamentals drive too high a risk premium or insufficient preparation is conducted for them to be considered bankable (quality). Exacerbating this further, projects take too long to prepare.

Is lack of funding/financing the main constraint to a robust infrastructure pipeline?

Lack of financing is not exclusively, or even mainly, the issue.

The global financial crisis of 2008 has reduced bank debt available to finance infrastructure projects, as well as increased pricing, stricter lending covenants, and shorter tenors. In particular, several large European banks have deleveraged and retreated from markets in which they once played important roles.

Simultaneously, however, non-bank lending for infrastructure is taking on a new momentum.1 Infrastructure, sovereign wealth, and pension funds are looking for asset classes with steady, inflation-adjusted income streams, and development banks are working to expand the number of vehicles available to access infrastructure.

A critical obstacle slowing the flow of private capital to infrastructure is the lack of properly structured, bankable projects.2 Properly analyzed (with detailed demand, engineering, and costing analysis) and well-structured projects are able to find financing.3 This does not imply that these projects are immune to uncertainty and risk. However, inherent uncertainties are clearly identified for investors to make calculated assumptions on the probabilities of expected outcomes, translate uncertainty into risk, and factor this into an expected return.

In practice, many projects do not have an adequate fact base built during preliminary work and potential investors face ambiguity (rather than uncertainty), which cannot be quantified and translated into a risk–return tradeoff. Frequently, infrastructure projects do not attract funding because they lack the adequate level of study necessary to establish their bankability, and projects that are not deemed bankable fail to attract more than cursory investor attention.

In short, funding challenges are real and significant. However, funding sources and mechanisms are largely responsive to the depth and quality of the project pipeline, rather than the key determinants of it. The remainder of this paper will focus on this critical issue of the challenge.

1InfraNews (2013). “How the Infrastructure Debt Market is Evolving to Accommodate a Growing Institutional Appetite.”
2World Bank (2013). Issues Note (No. 6) for Consideration by G20: “Long-Term Financing of Infrastructure: A Look at Non-financial Constraints.”
3Latin Finance (2010). “Infrastructure Investment: The Big Shortfall.”

 

How strong or weak is the pipeline of bankable infrastructure projects?

Indicators suggest that although the pipeline is strengthening, it falls well short of projected needs.

There are no concrete figures to accurately and exhaustively quantify the magnitude of projects in development. Only a few countries publish data on projects in the prelaunch or investigatory stages. These tend to be countries with well-established track records of public–private partnerships (PPPs) in infrastructure, such as Canada, the UK, and Australia. Otherwise, publicly available data sources are usually either retrospective, cataloguing historical public or private participation in infrastructure, or quantify the future need for infrastructure expenditure in aggregate terms or by sector.

The available data highlight the significant gap between historical expenditures (government and private sector combined) and future needs: worldwide expenditures on infrastructure need to more than double by 2020. Most indicators suggest that a step-function increase in expenditure of this magnitude is unlikely to generate the desired results. Where noticeable increases in infrastructure expenditure are evident in the pipeline, the increase over historical expenditure is in the 20%–40% range. A closer look at the cases of Africa, Brazil, India, and Indonesia follows.

 

What is project preparation and what goes into it?

The objective of project preparation is to translate demand for infrastructure into bankable projects.

Global Bank Project Preparation Cycle (GBPPC) entails the work required to take projects from a concept to a contract award, including project identification, project definition, feasibility analysis, deal structuring, and transaction support. It can also extend to creating the enabling environment and post-signing/implementation support activities.

Global Bank key activities and outputs addressed through Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”) include:

  • Designing and establishing the laws, regulations, policies, and institutions to support and enable a project’s (or broader sector’s) development and ongoing operation;

    Defining the need for the project, scoping the desired outputs, and establishing the project’s prioritization relative to competing demands;

  • Conducting a cost-benefit analysis to establish the project’s feasibility;

  • Developing project financing options and risk allocation to attract the right mix of finance;

  • Translating plans into tangible agreements through a procurement and tendering process that ultimately concludes with financial close.

This work requires input from a wide range of disciplines, including legal, policy, engineering, environmental, and financial. Preparation activities can be broadly divided into upstream/early stage and downstream/later stage activities.

How much does project preparation cost and how is it financed?

Project preparation typically costs between 5%–10% of the project’s capital cost, and can be financed via grants, risk capital, and loans.

Project preparation costs in developing countries typically range between 5%–10% of the total project investment. The project preparation cost depends on the project’s size and complexity whether several regional governments are involved, how prolonged the preparation process becomes, and the extent to which upstream preparation is complete. Clearly, the more efficient project preparation is, the greater the leveraging effect of a dollar spent in project preparation on infrastructure delivered to the benefit of end users.

Where does Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility fit in?

Most of the different infrastructure project preparation facilities identified by the Global bank Group tend to focus on providing support to different phases of the project cycle, rather than to all phases (although some do). This support tends to break down into early and mid-to-late stage support. Early stage support focuses on identifying / working up different project concepts and determining the elements of the enabling environment that need to be in place for the project to be able to obtain financing (specifically a private sector sponsor in the case of public-private partnerships (PPP). The latter phases involve the more detailed technical design, financial and legal structuring, environmental and other impact assessments and execution of the project.

The Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”) facilitates a more seamless transition from preparation to execution by financing additional project start-up activities. Facility make more funding available per project--up to 10% of the project’s capital cost --than traditional infrastructure project preparation facilities, as well.

What is the Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window?

The Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window will focus on building strong national and regional and subregional economic integration objectives and policy dialogue-driven replicability of project structures based on commercialisation, corporatisation and institutional strengthening. It will also ensure that projects are well structured and bankable, responding to these needs identified by both the Global Bank and the international consensus on infrastructure. Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window is expected to prepare approximately 15-20 projects per year when operating at full capacity.


What are the objectives of Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility?

The objective of the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”) is to provide Global Bank, and by extension Global Bank’s clients, with high-quality, efficient and market-tested project preparation and policy dialogue for the entire range of Global Bank-financed project types, enabling Global Bank to extend financing to the public sector.


In which sectors the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility is expecting to support policy dialogs and financing?

Covering all countries of Global Bank’s operations, the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility is expected to provide preparation and policy dialogue support for public sector lending structures, frequently on a sub-sovereign, corporate finance in the following sectors and subsectors:                                    

  • Energy: electricity generation; electricity transmission or distribution; natural gas transmission or distribution;

  • Information and communication: telecommunications networks, mobile and wireless network, broadband cable networks, data centers, last-mile internet connectivity;

  • Water and sanitation: water supply; wastewater and sewerage; irrigation and drainage; solid waste management;

  • Transportation: airports; ports; railways; mass transit; highways;

  • Urban Infrastructure: such as urban transport sector and related infrastructure including street rehabilitation, a concession for local road maintenance, as well as support for the preparation of a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (“SUMP”).

  • Environment Management Projects: Clean Heating Project, Hydropower Rehabilitation Project, Scaling Up Rural Sanitation and Water Supply Program, Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Program

What kind of projects Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility finances?

The Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”) aims to provide loans of around $500 million a year to finance infrastructure investment projects in the transport, energy, water and sanitation, environment and rural development, and social infrastructure sectors. Examples include renewable energy plants, roads or highways, and transmission and power grid development.

Projects are selected based on sound economic and financial viability, positive impact on social development and poverty reduction, promotion of regional cooperation and integration, and enhancement of private sector participation and/or public-private partnerships (PPPs).

Facility's projects are part of Global Bank's project pipeline, based on Global bank’s Country Partnership and Strategy and Country Operations Business Plan with the developing countries. The Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility project pipeline is confirmed by the respective developing countries through Global Bank's country programming missions, and must also be approved by the Facility's Board of Directors.


How is the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility aligned with National Development Strategies?

The Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”), Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window is based around investments that support core national priorities of the recipient countries in line with the National Development Strategy (NDS). The National Development Strategy is the document that outlines the recipient countries government’s strategies for security, governance, economic growth, infrastructure development and poverty reduction. The National Development Strategy is the product of intensive consultations between the host government and a wide array of stakeholders including the private sector, non-governmental organization (NGOs), and the international community. The Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility is one of the important mechanisms by which the Global Bank Group can support these National Priority Programs (NPPs).

Along with the National Development Strategy, the Compacts of the recipient countries serve as the primary mechanism for coordinating with Global Bank Group support to the international reconstruction and development efforts. The Compact establishes a five-year framework for cooperation between the developing countries governments and its international partners.

The development cooperation activities of Global Bank Group and other entities of the Global Bank Group Secretariat fit into a context of related work throughout the Global Bank Group system. These efforts, often known as "operational activities for international development cooperation", constitute one of the main streams of work of the Global Bank Group family. Through these the Global Bank Group, its funds and programmes, and the specialized agencies put into effect their mandates and capabilities in support of the policies and priorities of recipient countries. Each operates under the guidance of Global bank Group, and they take into account the outcomes and commitments of the relevant global conferences and summits. Further information on each organization is available through the websites of the Global bank Group.

Facility's projects are part of Global Bank's project pipeline, based on Global bank’s Country Partnership and Strategy and Country Operations Business Plan with the developing countries. The Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility project pipeline is confirmed by the respective developing countries through Global Bank's country programming missions, and must also be approved by the Facility's Board of Directors.

Who is eligible for the Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window?

Currently, 103 countries are eligible for the Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window of Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”) lending,

Certain countries are eligible for investment projects and/or technical assistance projects. Eligible countries are limited to those that are eligible to receive financing from the Bank for International Development and Reconstruction, which are not in non-accrual. 

Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility clients are middle-income and credit-worthy lower income countries. For the current 2016 fiscal year, the Facility classifies a country according to the wealth of its population. Middle-income countries are defined as having a per capita income of between around US$1,045 and US$12,736, which may qualify them to borrow from the Facility. India, Indonesia and Pakistan are examples of creditworthy low-income countries, which are eligible for financial assistance from Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility.

The Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window will focus on building strong national and regional and subregional economic integration objectives and policy dialogue-driven replicability of project structures based on commercialisation, corporatisation and institutional strengthening. It will also ensure that projects are well structured and bankable, responding to these needs identified by both the Global Bank and the international consensus on infrastructure. Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window is expected to prepare approximately 15-20 projects per year when operating at full capacity.

Who is eligible under the Sustainable Public-Private Partnership Window?

Private firms and financial institutions doing business in eligible countries can apply for loans, credit guarantees or equity investments. Firms outside of Global Bank-only countries with a compelling case may be considered for funding in consultation with the GBIPPF Steering Committee.

Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”) clients are middle-income and credit-worthy lower income countries. For the current 2016 fiscal year, the Facility classifies a country according to the wealth of its population. Middle-income countries are defined as having a per capita income of between around US$1,045 and US$12,736, which may qualify them to borrow from the Facility. India, Indonesia and Pakistan are examples of creditworthy low-income countries, which are eligible for financial assistance from Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility.


Who decides which countries are funded under the Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window?

The GBIPPF Steering Committee decides on funding allocations. The decision of the GBIIPF Steering Committee is based on the recommendations of the GBIPPF Technical Advisory Committee (TAC). The Technical Advisory Committee of GBIPPF is an independent panel of experts with a high level of experience and technical expertise in infrastructure project preparation, regional integration, infrastructure finance and sovereign financing issues, and have familiarity with the various master plans for regional and sub-regional integration through the increased implementation of priority infrastructure projects for those developing countries reviewing proposals submitted for financing by the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”). The GBIPPF Technical Advisory Committee provides the due diligence screening of submitted proposals and formulates funding recommendations. Based on the recommendations, the GBIPPF Steering Committee decides on funding.

Who decides which countries are funded under the Sustainable Public-Private Partnership Window?

The Sustainable Public-Private Partnership Window is always interested in hearing new opportunities. Projects are that meet eligibility requirements will be reviewed by the GBIPPF Sustainable Public-Private Partnership Window. The Sustainable Public-Private Partnership Window supports projects from all sectors. We give priority for projects that promote regional and international integration and trade, the sustainable use of natural resources and greater social inclusion, particularly those that provide high-quality goods and services for the middle-income population.

Global Bank Group through its affiliates invest in projects in education, health, housing, job training, capacity building and infrastructure, such as transportation, water and sanitation and energy. We also support projects that seek to address and mitigate the impacts of climate change in the areas of renewable energy, energy efficiency, recycling and biofuels. We invest in projects that will foster greater access to credit and capital markets for businesses of all sizes and financial institutions.

We do not invest in projects that are deemed illegal under the laws and regulations of the host country or under ratified international agreements or conventions. For more information please contact GBIPPF Secretariat.

Can Civil Society Organizations access funds directly from Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility?

Eligible entities for GBIPPF Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window are limited to sovereign entities countries for investment lending and/or Technical Assistance projects. Other entities are ineligible for direct Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility financing. However, the GBIPPF Steering Committee recognizes the importance of participation by relevant stakeholders in the preparation and implementation of projects, and takes this into consideration when making financing decisions and final funding approval. Civil Society Organizations and private sector actors may have a role as third party implementers or service providers depending on program scope and design of programs in accordance with the internal policies, guidelines, and procedures of Global Bank.

How is GBIPPF’s assistance allocated?

GBIPPF’s operations respond to the priorities defined by Global Bank’s clients, as they are in the best position to evaluate the needs arising from their social, economic and financial situation.

Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”) classified countries under three categories on the basis of two criteria: (i) country-creditworthiness and (ii) GNI per capita. The first category comprises ‘not creditworthy’ countries with a GNI per capita below an established threshold updated annually (in fiscal year 2016-2019: of $1,045 or less in 2014). Countries in the first category are not eligible for financial resources from the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility. Global Bank Group has other instruments to support not creditworthy’ countries. The second category contains countries with a GNI per capita below the operational GNI cut off but creditworthy: these are called ‘blend countries’ and are eligible for Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility and Global Bank resources. Finally, the third category is made up of countries above the operational GNI cut off and creditworthy. Those countries are eligible to Global Bank resources only.

Who can benefit from Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility assistance?

Most Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”) resources and projects are intended for developing countries only.

Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility classified countries under three categories on the basis of two criteria: (i) country-creditworthiness and (ii) GNI per capita. The first category comprises ‘not creditworthy’ countries with a GNI per capita below an established threshold updated annually (in fiscal year 2016-2019: of $1,045 or less in 2014). Countries in the first category are not eligible for financial resources from the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility. Global Bank Group has other instruments to support not creditworthy’ countries. The second category contains countries with a GNI per capita below the operational GNI cut off but creditworthy: these are called ‘blend countries’ and are eligible for Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility and Global Bank resources. Finally, the third category is made up of countries above the operational GNI cut off and creditworthy. Those countries are eligible to Global Bank resources only.

While Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility eligibility determinations will be made annually and effective from 1 January to 31 December, allocations are made once every three years. The 2016 Eligibility List is the list that will be used to allocate funding for the 2016-2017 allocation period.

How does Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility approach gender issues in its programmes?

The Global Bank takes as its starting point that no country, community, or economy can achieve its potential or meet the challenges of the 21st century without the full and equal participation of women and men, girls and boys. Failure to fully unleash women’s productive potential represents a major missed opportunity with significant consequences for individuals, families, and economies.

The Global Bank will mainstream gender considerations across all projects. Within the programs, opportunities will be sought to re-enforce and increase gains for women and expand women’s access to economic activity. The Global Bank will also use specific gender studies and analysis to help strengthen our understanding of gender issues within the cultural context.  Finally, we will look to develop strategies for how to engage more women within GBIPPF-funded programs at the regional, national and local level.

The GBIPPF Gender Working Group will: (i) review gender aspects of GBIPPF-financed activities; (ii) share knowledge and expertise on innovations in gender as they relate to the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”); (iii) propose recommendations on how gender aspects can be better captured in the GBIPPF Results Management Framework; and (iv) provide support for gender mainstreaming in GBIPPF portfolio management, pipeline development and new initiatives like the proposed Research and Analysis Facility. Interested parties will be invited to participate in project review and decision meetings to provide input on gender-related aspects where relevant.

How does the Global Bank monitor the work and performance of the Monitoring Agent?

The Monitoring Agent (MA) is under contract with the Global Bank, as the GBIPPF Administrator, which works closely with the Monitoring Agent to monitor their performance and work outputs. They meet regularly to review findings and determine follow up actions. In addition, as part of the Administrator's fiduciary framework for all operations (whether financed by the Global Bank or the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”), an annual independent audit is conducted. The Global Bank follows up with the Government and the Monitoring Agent on audit findings.

What is the procedure for obtaining a public sector loan?

Generally, the government of the eligible partner country makes a request to the Global Bank or directly to the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”) Secretariat through the minister in charge of mobilizing foreign assistance―usually the finance minister. This triggers Global Bank’s internal project preparation and review cycle.

What is the application procedure?

Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”) Secretariat has developed clear procedures for requesting financial support. All applicants are requested to read the instructions in the GBIPPF Funding Project proposal carefully and submit sufficient documentation of their submitted projects.

Applicants are also requested to first check their eligibility as well as the eligibility of the proposed project.

Download the GBIPPF Funding Project proposal Form

Please send the completed form to the GBIPPF Secretariat via our GBIPPF Secretariat Contact Form.

How is GBIPPF’s effectiveness assessed?

Global Bank uses output, outcome, and impact indicators to track the performance and effectiveness of its technical assistance activities. Monitoring impact indicators include, among others, additional private investment in a specific sector, increased number of poor people with access to infrastructure services, and improved levels of service for the poor. Every year, the Technical Advisory Panel conducts ex-post reviews of a selected number of activities to ensure they are correctly designed and implemented.

Projects financed by the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (“GBIPPF” or the ”Facility”) will go through in-depth evaluations by external consulting firms, selected by the Program Council, to assess the program’s continued relevance; the appropriateness of its governance structure and operation management; and the impact of its activities in assisting developing countries to improve infrastructure and reduce poverty. These evaluations confirmed Facility’s value-added role to develop capacity in infrastructure.

How does the Global Bank combat fraud and corruption in its projects?

The Global Bank expects borrowing countries and companies to observe the highest standards of ethics during the procurement process.  Companies can report allegations of fraud and corruption to an Anti-Corruption Hotline (toll free: 1-800-000-0xxx).   If the Global Bank deems that a company has engaged in fraudulent or corrupt practice, it may debar the company from competing for future Global Bank-financed contracts. A list of debarred firms is maintained on the Global Bank’s website.


Where can I view the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund disclosure policy?
Whom can I contact for more information on making donations to the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund?

Donors can contact the Global Bank, the Administrator for the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), to indicate your intention to make donations. The main point of contact is ____________, DRRRF CEO, based in Newport Coast (GBDRRRF Secretariat Contact Form).

Whom can I contact for more information on Global Bank grants and investment instruments?

Donors and other parties that require more information on the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”)  and on Global Bank grants and investments instruments can contact Global Bank directly by sending an email to GB DRRRF Secretariat via our Secretariat Contact Form.

How is it that business and other companies benefit from the Investment Grants programs at the DRRRF?

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) has the responsibility for coordinating the Global Bank Group relief efforts globally. These relief efforts include: (a) bringing risk reduction investments to the scale necessary to enable countries to achieve the Sendai Framework targets by 2030 and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals; (b) supporting client countries to implement the resilience objectives specified in their Nationally Determined Contributions; (c) harmonizing results measurement for Nationally Determined Contributions; (d) increasing the availability and effectiveness of resilience financing for Small Island States; (e) strengthening Disaster Risk Management (DRM) tools and expanding financial solutions for fast-growing cities in the context of rapid urbanization, populations growth, and climate change; (f) increasing access to early warning and risk information; (g) working with the private sector to address gaps in risk financing; (h) assisting countries transfer risk to the markets through the intermediation of risk management transactions; and (i) working with the humanitarian community to address pressing needs, ahead of the World Humanitarian Summit in 2018.

Broadly speaking,  Global Bank, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund and other related Global Bank Group initiatives such as the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (GBIPPF)  and the  GFIC InfraVentures Fund (InfraVenture) will provide investment grants, loans, credits, and guarantees (hereinafter collectively referred to as the “Financing”) of billions of dollars to developed and developing countries. These are made to support climate change mitigation and adaptation, climate-smart infrastructure development projects, post-disaster reconstruction and recovery, and other activities which are expressly permitted in the charter of the DRRRF. The DRRRF, through its various initiatives, is expected to provide investment grants, loans, credits, guarantees, and technical assistance to States, particularly to developing country governments, government agencies, or private institutions. Some of this financing comes in the form of Development Policy Support Loans or Credits. The proceeds of these Financing are used by countries to mitigate the costs of wide-reaching policy reforms. Investment Grants, Investment loans or credits provide financing for a wide range of activities aimed at creating the physical and social infrastructure necessary for poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Recipients of the financing require goods, equipment, civil works and consulting services to carry out the activities under the loan/credit. Therefore, the projects supported by these loans or credits are a source of business opportunities for local and international firms/ organizations.

How can I access the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund reporting documents?

All the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) financial statements, quarterly reports to donors, as well as the Annual report are regularly posted in the Donors Center section of the DRRRF website. You can access DRRRF key documents and reports through the Library Section of the DRRRF website.

Where do I find detailed information on the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Projects?

The Global Bank maintains the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) website. The website presents basic information on all investment grants projects financed by the DRRRF and provides easy access to results reporting for each of the projects. The DRRRF website provides access to all core project documents, including the Project Paper and Implementation Status and Results reports, which is the Global Bank’s mechanism for results reporting.

Where can I comment on a project which is financed by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund or state my views?

You can email Inquiries using our Project Feedback Contact Form, and your comments will be forwarded to the Global Bank Team Lead.

Which procurement policies does Global Bank adhere to?

Global Bank's version of the Standard Bidding Document for Goods and its User's guide is based on the Master Bidding Document for the Procurement of Goods and User's Guide prepared by the Multilateral Development Banks and International Financial Institutions.

Global Bank is harmonizing, to the highest possible degree, procurement policy and master bidding documents in a joint effort to enhance economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and fairness in all multilateral development banks (MDBs1) public and private sector projects. The Harmonized Master Documents reflect what is considered “best practices” and are intended to be used as a basis by the participating organizations for issuing a standard procurement document for each individual institution. In preparing the institutional own standard procurement documents, the Harmonized Master Documents are expected to be followed, insofar as possible, while allowing for institutional and member country considerations.

1The multilateral development bank are African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, Black Sea Trade and Development Bank, Caribbean Development Bank, Council of Europe Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Investment Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank, and the World Bank.
How can my company get involved in a GBDRRRF-funded project?

In its dealings with external providers, Global Bank is committed to respecting the fundamental principles regarding public procurement, such as the principles of equal treatment, non-discrimination and transparency. Global Bank considers that, as a general rule, these principles can be best implemented by competition among qualified tenderers and by a selection based both on cost and quality considerations.

For more information about the Global Bank, what we do and how we do it, please go to the Procurement section of our website.

Whom should I contact with a media inquiry?

The Media Relations Division (MRD) in the Corporate and External Affairs Vice Presidency Unit (CEXT) of Global Bank plays a key role in the dissemination of Global Bank information to the local and foreign media organizations through the Global Bank Online Press Briefing Center. Global Bank Press Briefing Center is a one-stop portal managed by Media Relations Division with links to various Global Bank agencies. It enables Global Bank to send press releases including speeches and press statements to the media directly.  These press releases are available for retrieval at the Global Bank Press Briefing Center Website as follows:

http://www.news.global-bank.org/pres-scenter/

The Media Relations Division also facilitates the processing of Press Accreditation Card (PAC) applications, advises foreign media on the setting up of bureaus in Global Bank, and facilitates the organizing of certain Global Bank media events.

The Media Relations Division can be contacted via the Media Relations Contact Form.

Journalists can apply for a Press Accreditation Card (PAC) from the Media Relations Division.  The Press Accreditation Card identifies the holder as an accredited journalist and provides access to Global Bank information and Global Bank events, which are open to the media. The Press Accreditation Card is granted only to full-fledged employees of accredited news organizations.  Freelance journalists who work for several organizations are not eligible.

What is Global Bank Media Briefing Center?

The Online Press Briefing Center (OPBC) is a password-protected site for working journalists only.  Most information in the Online Press Briefing Center is released to the public soon after it is provided to the media. Non-journalists who would like to be informed when new Global Bank information is released are invited to subscribe to one or more of our free e-mail newsletters.

Media accredited to cover the Global Bank and the Annual and Spring Meetings of Global Bank Board Governors meeting and other Global Bank events will have access to:

  • Press kits and other Global Bank materials;
  • Set-up interviews with the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) within the official venues;
  • Online Media Briefing Center;
  • Media opportunities;
  • Download high-resolution versions of every photo on the Global Bank Photo site;
  • Official press conferences;
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G7 Frequently Asked Questions

These Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) provide basic information on the G7. Designed for the general public and to those specifically involved in development work, they describe briefly and in question-and-answer format, the structure, objectives, philosophy and activities of the G7. For ease of use, it is divided into Sub-Topics: ...See the 10 Most Viewed FAQs

Who or what is the G7?

The Group of Seven (G7) is an informal grouping of seven of the world’s advanced economies consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The forum offers an opportunity for G7 Leaders, Ministers and policy makers to come together each year to build consensus and set trends around some of today’s most challenging global issues.

What is the G7 Summits?

The Group of Seven (G7) comprises seven leading industrialised nations: The United States of America, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan, Canada and Germany. In addition, the European Union sends representatives to all the meetings. 

The summits give the heads of state and government the opportunity to discuss their respective positions in personal meetings. A summit declaration containing the key outcomes is issued at the end of each summit meeting, sometimes along with additional reports and action plans. 

Participants discuss issues that are of global importance, including global economic issues and foreign, security and development policy. They also address those issues that require political action and that generate widespread public interest.

When is the Annual Summit of the G7?

The annual G7 Summit of the Heads of State and of Government is usually held in the middle of the year and is the highest-profile event of the entire G7 Presidency. The Summit will be attended not only by the G7 member countries’ leaders, but also by the leaders of select International Organizations, and by the Heads of State and of Government of “outreach” countries and of countries invited as guests of the Presidency.

The event is spread out over two working days and winds up with the submission and adoption of the Final Communiqué. France and the United States are represented by their Heads of State, while the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Italy and Canada are represented by their Heads of Government. The European Union is represented by both the President of the European Commission and the President of the European Council.

What is the G7 membership?

France, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and West Germany formed the Group of Six in 1975 (Canada joined the following year) to provide a venue for the non-Communist powers to address pressing economic concerns, which included inflation and a recession sparked by the OPEC oil embargo. Cold War politics invariably entered the group’s agenda.

The European Union (EU) has participated fully in the G7 since 1981 as a “nonenumerated” member. It is represented by the presidents of the European Council, which comprises the EU member states’ leaders, and the European Commission, the EU’s executive body. There is no formal criteria for membership, but participants are all developed democracies. The aggregate GDP of G7 member states makes up nearly 50 percent of the global economy, down from nearly 70 percent three decades ago.

 

7 GDP as a share of Global GDP

 

Unlike the United Nations or the NATO, the G7 is not a formal institution with a charter and a secretariat. Instead, the presidency, which rotates annually among member states, is responsible for setting the agenda and arranging logistics. Ministers and envoys, known as sherpas, hammer out policy initiatives at meetings that precede the annual summit of national leaders.

What is the origins of the G7?

The first summit, in 1975, was attended by France, Germany, the US, Britain, Japan and Italy. Known at the time as the G6, it started as a forum for non-Communist powers to address pressing economic concerns, including inflation and recession following an OPEC oil embargo.

Canada was invited to join a year later, creating the G7, which became formalised with annual meetings between the heads of the seven governments.

Representatives of the European Union have been additional participants to summits since 1981.

Russia was first invited as a guest observer in 1997 as a way to encourage then-President Boris Yeltsin's capitalist reforms, and formally joined a year later. However, it was kicked out in 2014 over the annexation of Crimea.

What are the goals of the G7?

The G7 sees itself as a community of values that stands for peace, security and a self-determined life all around the world. Freedom and human rights, democracy and the rule of law, as well as prosperity and sustainable development are key principles of the G7.

Why were these G7 Summits felt to be necessary?

Because of the economic problems the countries were faced with in the 1970s: the first oil crisis and the breakdown of the system of fixed currency exchange rates. The first meeting served to exchange ideas on possible solutions. The countries taking part reached agreement on international economic policy and first measures for reversing the ongoing global economic downturn.

How does the G7 work?

The G7 is a forum for dialogue at the highest level attended by the leaders of the world’s most important industrially advanced democracies. Its chief features are the intergovernmental nature of the preparatory process and its informality, which makes it easier for the leaders to discuss the world’s major issues and to rapidly devise and agree on solutions to them. Given that it is not an international organization, it is devoid of any kind of administrative structure or permanent

The G7 is not an international organisation, but what is known as an unofficial forum. That means that it does not adopt resolutions that have direct legal effect. The G7 has neither its own administrative apparatus with a permanent secretariat nor someone who acts as its members’ permanent representative. That is why the rotating presidency is so important.

Who holds the G7 Presidency?

The Presidency is held by each of the member countries in turn, in the following order: France, United States, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Italy and Canada. The European Union attends the G7 but neither chairs nor hosts Summits.

Italy will hold the Presidency from January 1 to December 31, 2017, a role it has played on five previous occasions in the history of the Group of Seven. It will thus be Italy’s responsibility to: propose and identify the Group’s priorities for action and consequently those areas requiring intervention; host and organize the technical and informal meetings that pave the way to the Summit, attended by the relevant Heads of State and of Government, as well as all the Ministerial Meetings; prepare the drafts and final texts of all supporting documents, including the Final Communiqué. The latter, adopted by the leaders at the end of each Summit, summarizes the main global issues debated during the year. While this communiqué is not a binding document in the strictest sense of the term, it is nonetheless of the utmost importance. It enshrines the pledges that the G7 Heads of State and of Government make regarding the political guidelines that they intend to pursue together.

How does the G7 reach its decisions?

The G7 do not reach decisions by majority vote. The countries have to reach unanimous agreement on their summit declaration. Even if the decisions are not legally binding, their global impact should not be underestimated.

What can the G7 achieve?

The decisions the G7 takes in full view of the world have a huge political impact. Experts refer to this as their binding effect. At home, the heads of state and government are also measured by what they achieve and agree at G7 meetings.

Who prepares the summit meetings?

The country holding the presidency is responsible for organising the annual summit and for drawing up the summit agenda. The governments’ chief negotiators, known as sherpas, do the preparatory and follow-up work. They establish on which issues agreement can be reached and where there is still need for discussion, and they prepare the final declarations containing the key outcomes of the summit.

Where have summits been held in the past?
YearPlaceHost
Year:1975Place:G6 Summit in RambouilletHost:France
Year:1976Place:G7 Summit in San JuanHost:USA
Year:1977Place:G7 Summit in LondonHost:United Kingdom
Year:1978Place:G7 Summit in BonnHost:West Germany
Year:1979Place:G7 Summit in TokyoHost:Japan
Year:1980Place:G7 Summit in VeniceHost:Italy
Year:1981Place:G7 Summit in OttawaHost:Canada
Year:1982Place:G7 Summit in VersaillesHost:France
Year:1983Place:G7 Summit in WilliamsburgHost:USA
Year:1984Place:G7 Summit in LondonHost:United Kingdom
Year:1985Place:G7 Summit in BonnHost:West Germany
Year:1986Place:G7 Summit in TokyoHost:Japan
Year:1987Place:G7 Summit in VeniceHost:Italy
Year:1988Place:G7 Summit in TorontoHost:Canada
Year:1989Place:G7 Summit in ParisHost:France
Year:1990Place:G7 Summit in HoustonHost:USA
Year:1991Place:G7 Summit in LondonHost:United Kingdom
Year:1992Place:G7 Summit in MunichHost:Germany
Year:1993Place:G7 Summit in TokyoHost:Japan
Year:1994Place:G7 Summit in NaplesHost:Italy
Year:1995Place:G7 Summit in HalifaxHost:Canada
Year:1996Place:G7 Summit in LyonsHost:France
Year:1997Place:G7 Summit in DenverHost:USA
Year:1998Place:G8 Summit in BirminghamHost:United Kingdom
Year:1999Place:G8 Summit in CologneHost:Germany
Year:2000Place:G8 Summit in OkinawaHost:Japan
Year:2001Place:G8 Summit in GenoaHost:Italy
Year:2002Place:G8 Summit in KananaskisHost:Canada
Year:2003Place:G8 Summit in Évian-les-BainsHost:France
Year:2004Place:G8 Summit in Sea IslandHost:USA
Year:2005Place:G8 Summit in GleneaglesHost:United Kingdom
Year:2006Place:G8 Summit in Saint PetersburgHost:Russia
Year:2007Place:G8 Summit in HeiligendammHost:Germany
Year:2008Place:G8 Summit in TōyakoHost:Japan
Year:2009Place:G8 Summit in L’AquilaHost:Italy
Year:2010Place:G8 Summit in MuskokaHost:Canada
Year:2011Place:G8 Summit in DeauvilleHost:France
Year:2012Place:G8 Summit in Camp DavidHost:USA
Year:2013Place:G8 Summit in Lough ErneHost:United Kingdom
Year:2014Place:G7 Summit in BrusselsHost:Belgium
Year:2015Place:G7 Summit in BavariaHost:Germany
Year:2016Place:G7 Summit in Shima-shiHost:Japan
Year:2017Place:G7 Summit in SicilyHost:Italy
Year:2018Place:G7 Summit in QuebecHost:Canada

 

Who will assume the presidency after Canada in 2018?
  • 2019     France
  • 2020    United States
  • 2021    United Kingdom
Why can’t they simply hold a web conference?

Web conferences are used to exchange facts. They are not conducive to creating the informal, relaxed atmosphere in which ideas are formed and trust is established. The event would take on a completely different character.

What are the G7 Sherpas?

The G7‘s institutional structure is headed by a “Sherpa,” personal representatives of the Heads of State and of Government of the world’s seven most industrially advanced countries.

The role they play is named after the figures that guide adventurers to Himalayan peaks. Like the mountain climbing porters, the G7 Sherpas do the heavy lifting, overcoming obstacles and safely navigating the chosen paths, thereby defining those positions that will be undersigned at the Summit, on important global issues.

Sherpas are also responsible for the preparatory process preceding the Summit and oversees negotiations regarding the drafting of the Final Communiqué.

Sherpas regularly communicate with each other in connection with their respective leaders’ positions and proposals on international issues, and they are in touch with their leaders directly at all times.

The post of Sherpa is traditionally held by a high-ranking diplomat.

The Sherpas are supported in their role by Foreign Affairs Sous-Sherpas (FASS) and a Political Directors (PD). They are assisted by a representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (the PD) who is responsible for foreign and security policy issues, and by another representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (the FASS) who is generally in charge of such cross-cutting issues as the environment, social and economic aspects, and development.

The Economy and Finance Ministry, on the other hand, handles the economic and financial issues on the Summit’s agenda. Ad hoc working groups can also be set up to address particularly complex, technical issues.

What are the G7 Working Groups?

A number of working groups comprising experts from the G7 member countries have been set up over the years to follow up on the pledges made by the Heads of State and of Government and to explore the more technical aspects of the debates in greater depth. Under the guiding hand of the Sherpas, Political Directors and Foreign Affairs Sous-Sherpas, the G7 countries’ experts address such specific issues as health, food safety, development, energy, environmental protection, non-proliferation and support for the United Nations’ peacekeeping and peace-consolidating operations.

Have only members of the G7 been invited to the summit?

Other guests will be invited to the summit of the heads of state and government to discuss specific topics as part of what is known as the expanded dialogue. There is a long tradition of involving third countries and international organisations in G7 summits. The heads of state and government of various African nations are invited to one of the sessions. In a way of example, the G7 in Schloss Elmau has support the African states in their reform efforts. The aim was and still is to contribute to boosting peace, security, growth and sustainable development in Africa.

Before the G7 summits meeting will be held with representatives from business, the scientific community, trade unions, non-governmental organisations and young people from the G7 countries.

Why is the European Union (EU) only a participant?

Because the EU, unlike the other members of the G7, is a supranational organisation and not a sovereign state. However, it has the same privileges and obligations. 

The EU is one of the world’s key economic areas. It is also increasingly addressing security policy issues.

Why will the President of the European Commission (EU) and the President of the European Council be there?

The first meetings between the European Community and the G7 were held in London in 1977. Since the Ottawa Summit in 1981 the European Commission has regularly attended all the working sessions. The European Union shares all the G7’s values and is itself an important economic factor.

Why will there be no G8 Summit? Why is Russia not taking part?

In March 2014, the G7 decided that, in view of Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea, meaningful discussions within the context of the G8 are currently not possible. Since then the meetings have continued in the G7 format. 

By taking this decision the G7 emphasised that it is a community of values that cannot accept a breach of international law. That is why the G7 met in Brussels for a summit on 4 and 5 June 2014 instead of taking part in the planned G8 summit in Sochi, Russia.

What are the G7 Dialogues with the Emerging Economies, Developing Countries and International Organizations?

The involvement of the emerging economies, of developing countries and of international organizations has kept pace with, and reflects, a gradual evolution in the issues addressed by the Group of Seven. Initial interest in issues relating solely to financial stability and to macro-economic coordination were soon joined by an interest in other crucial themes ranging from development in Africa and climate change to food safety and the resolution of international crises. It was Italy, in Genoa in 2001, that inaugurated the now traditional “African segment” of the Summit, with dialogue sessions between the G7 leaders and the African countries invited by the Presidency.

What is the G7 dialogue with Civil Society?

Civil society is a crucial interlocutor for the G7 Presidencies. It plays an advocacy role, helping mobilize key actors and bringing institutions closer to the grassroots level. Civil society also encourages and monitors the leaders, to ensure that they honor the pledges they have made. Italy has initiated ongoing dialogue with all the representatives of the so-called G7 engagement groups (Business7, Civil7, ThinkThank7, Labor7, Science7, Women7 and Youth7), which will not only submit their policy recommendations to the leaders and institutions in connection with the issues on the G7 agenda, but will also organize their own parallel summits over the course of Italy’s Presidency.

Where is more information about the G7?
  • Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy
  • Federal Foreign Office
  • Federal Ministry of Finance
  • Bavarian State Chancellery

G20 Frequently Asked Questions

The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) provide basic information on the G20. Designed for the general public and to those specifically involved in development work, they describe briefly and in question-and-answer format, the structure, objectives, philosophy and activities of the G20. For ease of use, it is divided into Sub-Topics: ...See the 10 Most Viewed FAQs

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Sustainable Development Frequently Asked Questions

The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) provide basic information on Sustainable Development. Designed for the general public and to those specifically involved in development work, they describe briefly and in question-and-answer format, the structure, objectives, philosophy and activities of Sustainable Development. For ease of use, it is divided into Sub-Topics: ...See the 10 Most Viewed FAQs

Who prepared the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and for what purpose?

The proposed goals and targets were prepared by the Leadership Council of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) to help inform the debate around Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including the work of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, which has recently submitted its report to the United Nations Secretary-General, and the Open Working Group on the Sustainable Development Goals established at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). The Leadership Council took into consideration proposals emerging from the thematic and national consultations organized by the United Nations Task Team, other processes, and numerous reports issued by civil society and research organizations. The Leadership Council also benefited enormously from hundreds of comments received during public consultations on the document.

What are the four dimensions of sustainable development?

The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) outcome document refers to three dimensions of sustainable development (economic, social, and environmental) and emphasizes the importance of good governance as well as peace and security, which are sometimes referred to as a foundation of sustainable development. For simplicity we refer to the four societal objectives as dimensions of sustainable development: economic development (including ending extreme poverty), social inclusion, environmental sustainability, and good governance including peace and security.

Why does the world need the sustainable development goals?

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) demonstrate the power of global goals, backed by quantitative targets, in building momentum for national and local action. Addressing the challenges of sustainable development requires a shared focus on ending extreme poverty in all its forms and a structural transformation in the way that national and local economies operate. The necessary focus and collaboration across actors and countries can best be achieved through shared global objectives for sustainable development. That is why the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) called for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Of course, setting global goals – even if they are based on shared values – will have little impact unless followed up by concerted action. However, averting the business-as-usual (BAU) trajectory will be nearly impossible without an ambitious and universal set of Sustainable Development Goals.

Well-crafted Sustainable Development Goals guides the public understanding of complex long-term challenges, inspire public and private action, and promote accountability. They builds on existing global initiatives and bring together ongoing efforts in sustainable development. The Sustainable Development Goals is a complementary to the tools of international laws, such as global treaties and conventions, by providing a normative framework for the global partnership needed to address the interconnected challenges the world faces. Children around the world will learn a simplified version of the goals as a clear introduction to sustainable development. For business people, government officials, civil society, and others, the goals will promote integrated thinking and help to stave off the futile debates that often pit one dimension of sustainable development against another. They will mobilize governments and the international system to strengthen measurement and monitoring for sustainable development. 

How does the scope of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) compare with the scope of the global policy agenda?

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are one part of the global policy framework for the period after 2015. Just as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were part of the Millennium Declaration, which goes well beyond the Millennium Development Goals to include issues of war and peace, the Sustainable Development Goals will be one part of the global policy agenda after 2015. The broader agenda including issues of war and peace, ridding the world of nuclear weapons as per the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and addressing major macroeconomic challenges such as reforming the global financial systems to prevent a repeat of the devastating 2008 financial crisis.

 

Why are the proposed goals called “Sustainable Development Goals”?

The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) adopted the principle of sustainable development goals to be crafted and adopted by United Nations member states before the end of 2015. The proposed goals outlined by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) are one of many inputs into this debate.

Who would such goals apply to? What would be the role of civil society and business?

The Sustainable Development Goals are universal, applying to all nations, rich and poor alike. They have a 15-year time frame, like the Millennium Development Goals, thereby covering the period 2015 to 2030. The Sustainable Development Goals should address all four dimensions of sustainable development (economic, social, environmental, and governance) and set objectives for governments at all levels, as well as for business and civil society. Not every goal will be a “stretch goal” for every country. Rich countries, for instance, will have met goals related to ending extreme poverty. Yet all countries lag behind on some dimensions of sustainable development.

Business deserves special note as a principal engine for economic growth and job creation. The term “business” comprises a great diversity of organizations ranging from small shops to large multinational corporations and financial institutions. Collectively, businesses will develop and deliver many of the new technologies, organizational models, and management systems that are needed for sustainable development. Businesses also directly account for some two-thirds of natural resource use. If businesses embrace the Sustainable Development Goals and are supported by clear government policies and rules that align private incentives with sustainable development, then rapid positive change will become possible.1 If businesses operate under values and incentives that are misaligned with the objectives of sustainable development, then the transformations outlined in this document will be impossible.

Similarly, sustainable development cannot occur without civil society doing its part. The Sustainable Development Goals are a guide and standard for civil society as well, including universities and other expert communities, non- governmental organizations (NGOs), philanthropies and foundations, environmental groups, social enterprises, and others. Each of these civil society actors will have their own distinctive role to play in support of the Sustainable Development Goals.

 
1One example of a values-based business initiative that also includes a development dimension is the United Nations Global Compact

 

How do the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) relate to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?

The Millennium Development Goals are the world’s shared goals for ending extreme poverty in all its forms and will expire at the end of 2015. They have supported tremendous progress, including the reduction by half of the poverty rate of developing countries taken as a group. However, the job of ending extreme poverty in all its forms is far from complete country by country, particularly among disadvantaged groups and regions within countries. For this reason, the Sustainable Development Goals start with a clear commitment to finishing the work of the Millennium Development Goals by resolving under SDG 1 to end extreme poverty and hunger by 2030. The Global Bank Group has committed to the goal of ending extreme poverty by 2030, and to achieve sustainable development in its three dimensions through promoting inclusive economic growth, protecting the environment, and promoting social inclusion. Member states may decide to include suitably updated Millennium Development Goals targets under SDG 1 as measures of extreme poverty in all its forms. Alternatively, the targets on ending extreme poverty may be distributed across the corresponding Sustainable Development Goals.

Are the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) prioritized? How have they been ordered?

The proposed Sustainable Development Goals in such a way as to stay close to the structure of the Millennium Development Goals. They are not ordered by priority. All are very important and work in harmony with the others.

How do the goals relate to sustainable development and its dimensions? How do they deal with integration?

As described in this document and illustrated in Annex 2, the world’s challenges are interconnected and must therefore address all four dimensions of sustainable development (economic development and ending poverty, social inclusion, environmental sustainability, and good governance including peace and security). To reflect the need for integration, the proposed ten Sustainable Development Goals and their thirty targets have been designed to address multiple dimensions of sustainable development.

What are the reasoning and criteria behind crafting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets?

Several criteria have been identified for crafting the Sustainable Development Goals. They should be:

  1. Universal: The goals should be applicable to all countries. In particular they should address the needs of low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries. 

  2. Comprehensive: Together, the ten goals should spell out the principal challenges of sustainable 
development and provide a normative framework for the global partnership needed to address the profound and interconnected challenges the world faces. For example, the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) feels that climate change is such an important challenge that these words need to appear in the title of one of the goals. 

  3. Operational: To the extent possible, each goal should address and mobilize clearly defined knowledge communities comprising government departments, business, civil society, international organizations, and academia/research. Some goals therefore focus on specific operational or place-based challenges, such as urban management, climate change, or sustainable agriculture. Others focus on cross-cutting issues like gender equality or water management that must be addressed in every goal, but should also be highlighted through a dedicated goal. 

  4. Jargon-free and easy to understand: Children should be able to learn the goals at school as a clear introduction to sustainable development. To this end the wording of the goals needs to be free of jargon. Where important technical concepts (e.g. ecosystems) are needed these should be included and become part of the introduction to sustainable development. 

  5. SMART Targets: In general, targets should be “SMART”: specific, measurable (though some targets should remain fairly general and may require the setting of national/local targets or new metrics), attainable (though some will be “stretch” goals that can be attained only with considerable effort), relevant (to the four dimensions of sustainable development), and time bound to 2030 or earlier. 

  6. Applicable to all stakeholders: The goals should apply to governments at all levels, business, civil society, international organizations, and other stakeholders. 

  7. Integrated: The goals should promote integrated thinking and put to rest the futile debates that pit one dimension of sustainable development against another 

  8. Limited in number: The Sustainable Development Solutions Network believes that ten is the maximum practical number. Beyond ten, the goals would lose the benefit of public understanding and motivation.
How can the targets be measured? Where are the indicators?

The targets proposed should be specified at the global and national level to ensure that they can be measured in a timely and accurate way using one or more indicators. The indicators should be well designed to enable data collection and monitoring. The statistical agencies should promote the use of advanced data tools, including remote sensing, real-time monitoring with smartphones, crowdsourcing, GIS mapping, and other techniques.

Why do some goals focus on outcomes whereas others focus on outputs or means?

Where possible, the Sustainable Development Goals should focus on outcomes, such as ending extreme poverty. Yet, the distinction between outcomes, outputs, and inputs needs to be handled pragmatically, and the design of goals and targets should be guided by approaches that are best suited to mobilize action and ensure accountability. For example, ensuring universal access to healthcare or high-quality early childhood development (ECD) are important commitments for every government. Goals and targets that focus on these outputs will ensure operational focus and accountability. In some instances it also makes sense to target inputs. For example, official development assistance (ODA) is critical for ensuring many Sustainable Development Goals and needs to be mobilized in every high-income country. Mobilizing resources for sustainable development is difficult, so subsuming official development assistance as an implicit input into every Sustainable Development Goal would make it harder for government leaders, citizens, and civil society organizations to argue for increased official development assistance. It would also weaken accountability for rich countries. Similar considerations apply, for example, to the proposed target on integrated reporting by governments and businesses on their contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals.

What does reducing to “zero” or “universal access” mean?

Many targets call for “universal access” (e.g. to infrastructure) or “zero” deprivation (e.g. extreme poverty, hunger). For each such target, the technical communities and member states will need to define the precise quantitative standard for their commitment to “universal access” or “zero” deprivation. In most cases these standards will indeed be 100 percent or 0 percent, respectively, but there may be areas where it is technically impossible to achieve 100 percent access or 0 percent deprivation. In such cases countries should aim to get as close as possible to 100 percent or 0 percent, respectively.

Why are some targets not quantified and marked with an asterisk? Why do some targets have numbers in square brackets?

It is important that every target can be measured at the national or local level, but not every target can be defined globally in a meaningful way, for three distinct reasons:

i.     The starting points may differ too much across countries for a single meaningful quantitative standard at the global level; 


ii.    Some targets need to be adapted and quantified locally or may be relevant only in subsets of countries (e.g. those that refer to specific ecosystems); 


iii.   For some targets no global consensus exists today, and these still need to be negotiated, as is the case with greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. In the meantime, countries should establish their own plans and targets. 


In some cases, proposed numerical targets are presented in square brackets since these numbers are preliminary and may need to be reviewed by the corresponding technical communities.

How do the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) define poverty?

The term “extreme poverty in all its forms” for the multidimensional concept of poverty encapsulated in the Millennium Development Goals, comprising inter alia income poverty, hunger, gender inequality, lack of education, poor health, and lack of access to basic infrastructure services. Extreme income poverty or “absolute income poverty” is defined by the Global Bank Group as a per capita income of less than $1.25 per day. The measure social inclusion in part by the use of “relative poverty,” defined by the (OECD) as the proportion of households with incomes less than half of the national median income.

Why is hunger included under poverty instead of agriculture?

Several arguments have prompted the Leadership Council to include hunger and nutrition under extreme poverty:

i.     Hunger and malnutrition are challenges that affect rural as well as urban areas, so grouping hunger under a place-based “rural” goal might weaken the focus on urban hunger; 


ii.    Hunger is not only a function of food availability, which a goal focused on sustainable food production might suggest; 


iii.   Stunting and malnutrition are key dimensions of extreme poverty that give substance to the notion of “extreme poverty in all its forms”; and 


iv.   A poverty/hunger goal ensures full continuity with MDG 1. 


Note that in sub-Saharan Africa, the links between hunger and low agricultural productivity are especially acute, so that, in this region, the reduction of hunger and the achievement of sustainable agriculture are deeply intertwined. 

How do the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deal with inequalities?

The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deal with inequalities in several ways:

i.     SDG 4 has explicit targets on ending discrimination and reducing relative poverty, which describes the proportion of households with incomes below 50 percent of the national median. Relative poverty is a widely used measure of inequality. 


ii.    Many of the goals emphasize universal access to various public services and infrastructure that
give every person, especially women, a fair chance at prosperity (note in particular SDGs 3 to 9). Achieving universal access will require that special strategies address deep-rooted inequalities across regions, gender, ethnicities, income levels, and other dimensions. 


Recommend that the Sustainable Development Goals indicators be disaggregated as much as possible by geography, income, socio-economic group, and other identifiers to track inequalities in Sustainable Development Goals outcomes. As described in Section V, for every Sustainable Development Goals call on countries to monitor and to end inequalities in outcomes across sub-populations. 

What is the reasoning behind the focus on highly vulnerable states and regions?

Certain parts of the world, including the Sahel, the Horn of Africa (plus Yemen), the Great Lakes region of Central Africa, and parts of Central Asia, face extraordinary challenges as the result of the combination of extreme poverty, weak infrastructure, chronic violence, rapid population growth, and inherently difficult geographical conditions (such as being landlocked, small island states, extremely arid, highly vulnerable to droughts and floods, and/or having a high burden of communicable diseases such as malaria). Countries facing these tremendous and interconnected challenges need special international support, including timely and adequate external assistance. They also need a regional focus, since many of the problems (weak transportation, cross-border nomadism, displaced populations, droughts, epidemics, and conflicts) occur at the regional scale and must be addressed in part at that scale.

What is the reasoning behind SDG 2 (Development within Planetary Boundaries)?

Modern Earth-systems science (including geology, climate science, hydrology, and ecology) makes clear that human activity is now dangerously impinging on vital Earth functions, including climate, the water cycle, the nitrogen cycle, biodiversity, ocean acidification, particulate pollution, and more. Scientists are identifying certain thresholds or “planetary boundaries” beyond which human activity can have dire effects on human wellbeing and on ecosystem functions everywhere. Unless human development respects these planetary boundaries, people in all countries are likely to face severe environmental degradation that could severely set back human development. Yet it is possible for countries to grow while respecting these boundaries, mainly by improving efficiency, shifting to sustainable technologies, restraining various kinds of wasteful behaviors, and by decelerating population growth more rapidly. The proposed SDG 2 therefore underscores the right to development for all countries within planetary boundaries. It is closely related to the better-known concept of sustainable consumption and production. This goal includes a target on economic growth as a key dimension of the right to development. A second target focuses on the need to measure and track the environmental impact of growth in every country by reforming national accounting systems. A third target focuses on the rapid attainment of population stabilization. The transformations needed for the world and for every country to respect planetary boundaries are addressed in the goals below (particularly SDGs 6 to 10).

Why is there no proposed goal called “Sustainable Consumption and Production”?

Most simply because it is the essence of proposed SDG 2. As emphasized throughout this document and in the “Framework of Programs on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns” adopted at United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), the use of environmental resources and pollution must be brought down to levels that can be sustained over the long run. This in turn will require a major decoupling of pollution and environmental resource use from rising living standards and economic growth, consistent with achieving a net reduction in both aggregate pollution and resource use. In many areas consumption and production patterns will need to change significantly. Yet, the key question is not the level of “consumption” or “production” per se, but their primary resource, pollution, and ecosystem implications. Consumption and production in an economic sense (i.e., improvement of material conditions) can grow provided they are decoupled from pollution and unsustainable natural resource use. This is the normative essence of SDG 2.

What does the notion of “decoupling” mean

Decoupling means a drop in primary resource use and pollution as economic growth proceeds. It is achieved through a combination of new technologies (e.g. photovoltaic electricity and wind power substituting for fossil fuels), investments in energy efficiency (e.g. reduced losses on the power grid, improved insulation for homes), the dematerialization of production (e.g. the shift from vinyl albums to online music and from books to e-books), and proper economic incentives for individuals, businesses, and governments.

Resource efficiency (more output per unit of resource input) is a necessary but not sufficient condition. Greater efficiency in oil and gas extraction (e.g. hydrofracking) can expand rather than reduce CO2 emissions. Greater efficiency in internal combustion engines can lead to larger cars rather than fuel savings. Thus, technological changes need to be combined with appropriate policy incentives.

There are many pessimists regarding decoupling who feel that the only way to limit resource use is to limit overall economic growth. We disagree. Decoupling has not yet been tried as a serious global strategy, and we believe that advances in areas such as information and communications technologies, energy technologies, materials science, advanced manufacturing processes, and agriculture will permit continued economic growth combined with a massive reduction in the use and waste of key primary commodities, a sharp drop in greenhouse gas emissions and other forms of pollution.

How do the Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) deal with jobs, particularly for the young?

Reducing youth unemployment is a core priority for most countries. The proposed SDG 3 focuses on high- quality primary and secondary education and on effective institutions (such as apprenticeships) that can help youth prepare for decent work. The third target focuses directly on the youth unemployment rate. Likewise, the agriculture goal (SDG 6) includes the need for rural job creation and development, whereas the urban goal (SDG 7) addresses urban employment under its first target.

What is meant by measuring "subjective well being and social capital" (Target 5c)?

Many scholars and an increasing number of governments now collect data on subjective wellbeing (SWB). SWB refers to an individual's own report of his or her sense of happiness or life satisfaction. These subjective accounts have been shown to be systematic and informative of the individual and social conditions in a country that are conducive to a high quality of life. The proposed numerical targets for reducing tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol derive from the World Health Assembly resolution 66.10.2 propose the 2025 target of reducing harmful use of alcohol by 10% be increased to 20% by 2030.

Why is there no stand-alone goal on infrastructure?

Access to infrastructure is essential for ending extreme poverty in all its forms and promoting sustainable development. The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) divide the challenges of providing access to infrastructure between urban (SDG 7) and rural (SDG 6) areas. This division is motivated by the fact that infrastructure technologies, delivery models, and responsible actors vary significantly between urban and rural areas.

How do the proposed goals deal with water supply and water resources management?

Providing access to safe water and sanitation, ensuring sound management of freshwater resources, and preventing water pollution are inter-related priority challenges of sustainable development that must be met for other goals and targets to be achieved Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Water access: Delivery models, technologies, and responsible actors for access to water and sanitation differ between urban and rural areas, so we propose to assign these challenges to the urban and rural goals, respectively. This has the added advantage of combining water supply and sanitation, which are often closely linked.

Water resources management: Integrated water resources management and the allocation of water across different uses is a cross-cutting requirement for all goals. Freshwater needs for agriculture (accounting for some 70 percent of freshwater withdrawals), industry, households, and the healthy functioning of ecosystems (sometimes referred to as “green water”) stand out as major challenges. Moreover, water-related disasters, such as floods and droughts, account for a large share of damage from natural disasters. Water resources management and associated disaster risk management cannot be pursued in isolation from the management of agriculture, cities, and ecosystems, so water is part of several goals. The proposed SDG 9 emphasizes the need for integrated water resources management. A suitable indicator for Target 9c might include the ratio of freshwater withdrawals to renewable freshwater supply which should be lower than one.

Water pollution: Water pollution is a separate management challenge. Although not limited to urban areas, water pollution is a significant urban challenge and is therefore included under SDG 7.

The question of how to deal with water challenges in the proposed Sustainable Development Goals has been intensely discussed in the Leadership Council. Some have argued for a stand-alone water goal partly to draw attention to the importance of water management. Overall, though, the proposals provide a sound basis for managing the various water challenges within the framework of ten Sustainable Development Goals, particularly if suitable indicators track the sustainable use of water resources, access to water supply, and water quality. 

Most goals apply to cities. Why do we need a separate urban goal?

Urban2 sustainable development is a central challenge and a major opportunity for most countries, as urban and slum populations are rising rapidly. The urban share of the world’s population is expected to rise from 52 percent in 2010 to around 67 percent in 2050, and the urban share of GDP and employment will rise commensurately. If managed well, urbanization can create employment and prosperity, and become a central driver for ending extreme poverty and for strengthening social inclusion. If managed poorly, cities will deepen social exclusion and fail to generate enough jobs.

Urban sustainable development is complex, involving not only many sectors but also many political entities, including local neighborhoods, city governments, metropolitan areas, and national governments, which must empower cities and link them to rural areas. As a result, strategies for cities pose highly complex yet crucial challenges. An urban Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) is therefore important to mobilize and bring together the efforts of multiple actors and stakeholders (e.g. local authorities, national governments, businesses, knowledge institutions, and civil society) across a range of urban issues (e.g. urban jobs, housing, infrastructure, governance, disaster risk reduction, and climate change adaptation and mitigation) and mobilize the financial, institutional, and human resources to make this possible.

 
1In this document we use the terms “cities” and “urban areas” interchangeably to denote metropolitan areas and all urban centers that have economic or political importance

 

Why are the targets under Goal 9 not quantified?

The world has adopted the Aichi Biodiversity targets as quantitative outcome targets for biodiversity and ecosystems. These 20 targets include outcome objectives to be achieved by 2020. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) targets cannot replicate the full set of Aichi targets, and it strikes us as impossible to pick one ecosystem or one quantitative target over the others. Countries therefore need to set their own quantitative targets under the Sustainable Development Goals, which should ideally be consistent with the Aichi targets. It was proposed to distinguish between ecosystem management at the national and subnational level (first target) and regional or global efforts (second target). The latter are inherently more complex and require different institutional arrangements. Both are critical for sustainable development.

The proposed Sustainable Development Goals targets call for policies to ensure resilient and productive ecosystems. A central objective of such policies must be to address the drivers of ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss, which includes applying the “polluter pays” and “payment for ecosystem services” principles. Suitable indicators, including halting the loss of biodiversity, can and should be constructed at national/local and regional/global levels to measure the achievement of this target across a broad range of ecosystems.

The UNFCCC deals with climate change. Why do we propose a goal on climate change?

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will set legally binding targets among nations. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will not be legally binding and will not replace or hinder the work of the UNFCCC. Rather, the Sustainable Development Goals, like the Millennium Development Goals today, will provide a global, easily understood, normative framework to mobilize all stakeholders in the fight for sustainable development, which must include efforts to curb human-induced climate change. The Sustainable Development Goals should therefore help the public to understand the critical issues, the solutions, and the urgency of changing course. Similar considerations apply to biodiversity, human rights, and other areas where legally binding international conventions have been adopted, but which also need to be addressed by the Sustainable Development Goals. The Sustainable Development Goals need to get to the crux of the matter on climate change: that is, heading off the rapidly growing dangers. Because the science of climate change continues to evolve, it is important to define the related Sustainable Development Goals so that it can evolve with the progress of scientific understanding and reflect new and hopefully stronger commitments made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Today’s consensus on avoiding a 2°C increase in temperature, for example, may not be ambitious enough according to a growing body of scientific evidence. This is especially troubling since the world is far off course from even achieving the 2°C target.

Why is there no stand-alone goal on peace and security?

To underscore the importance of peace and security as a central component of the four dimensions of sustainable development. Goal 1 includes a focus on vulnerable regions, including post-conflict regions, and a target to address conflict and violence. Goal 4 includes a target on reducing violence against individuals, especially women and children, which needs to be operationalized at the country level. This target addresses issues of gender-based violence and child protection, as well as personal security, which represent a critical challenge in conflict and post-conflict settings. Indeed, many of the proposed goals address the structural causes of conflict such as inequality and exclusion, extreme poverty in all its forms, and poor governance.

The broader political issues of peace and security, which are typically addressed by the Security Council of the United Nations, go beyond the scope of the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The post-2015 global policy framework, which will include more than the Sustainable Development Goals themselves, should also draw attention to the long-standing but still unfulfilled objective of ridding the world of nuclear weapons.

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