DRRRF

THE GLOBAL BANK
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
AND RECONSTRUCTION FUND

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Global Bank Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Global Bank FAQs

Global Bank Group FAQs

The Global Bank is the Administrator of the DRRRF and is responsible for monitoring and reporting on DRRRF performance. The Bank is in particular responsible for ensuring that funds are allocated in accordance with the Financing Strategy agreed with governments, donors and partner entities and in line with defined and agreed‐upon fiduciary standards and performance measures.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Group (Bank Group”) is serving as Trustee for the for the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”). The Global Bank Group, in its capacity as the Trustee, will establish the Trust Fund to receive contributions from Donors to the DRRRF and will hold in trust, as a legal owner, and administer the funds, assets, and receipts that constitute the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund.  The Trustee is accountable to the DRRRF Steering Committee for the performance of its functions.

The Trustee will have no responsibility for the use of the Trust Fund funds transferred, and Activities carried out therewith. In particular, the Trustee shall have no responsibility, fiduciary or otherwise, for the implementation or supervision of Activities financed by such funds, including without limitation, any duties, and obligations that might otherwise apply to a fiduciary or trustee under general principles of trust or fiduciary law.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction Working Groups and the Strategy Working Group are technical advisory bodies accountable to the Management Committee and representing the wider group of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) donors. Both working groups are regional-based bodies, chaired by the Global Bank Group, with the host Government participation.

For the background details of the Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction Working Groups and the Strategy Working Group are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The DRRRF Secretariat will be established to support the work of the DRRRF Steering Committee. The DRRRF Secretariat will be housed in the Newport Coast, California offices of Global Bank and will comprise a small team of professional and administrative staff employed by the Global Bank. The DRRRF Secretariat will be headed by a programme manager in the Climate Change Global Practices within the Network Complex and the Regional Complex Department at the Global Bank.

For the Background details of the DRRRF Secretariat are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance was created by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) with the aim of assisting the DRRRF, with regards to, for example, transparency, efficiency, and effectiveness in the delivery of climate finance. Furthermore, the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance is designed to improve the linkages and to promote the coordination with climate finance related actors and initiatives within and outside the DRRRF.

The DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance consists of up to twenty members who work together to assist the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund with regards to the Financial Mechanism of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund. Currently, DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance has been assigned four specific functions by the DRRRF Steering Committee to allow it to meet its goal. Firstly, the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance has the function of assisting the DRRRF to improve coherence and coordination in the delivery of climate change financing. Secondly, the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance has the function of working to assist the DRRRF in a rationalization of the Financial Mechanism of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund. The third function of the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance is to support the DRRRF in the mobilization of financial resources for climate financing. Finally, the fourth function is to support the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund in the measurement, reporting, and verification of support provided to developing country.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

A five-member Board of Directors (the “DRRRF Board of Directors”) of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) is responsible for overall supervision and control of the Trust Fund. The DRRRF Board of Directors consisting of representatives of the Global Bank Group and bilateral and multilateral international donors.

The background details of the DRRRF Board of Directors are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Immediate Needs Funding (INF) is money earmarked for the most urgent work in the initial aftermath of a disaster. The funds may be provided to any eligible applicant for eligible emergency work that must be performed immediately and paid for within the first 60 days following approval by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”). Eligible work typically includes debris removal, emergency protective measures, and removal of health and safety hazards. Immediate needs funds can be used for expenses resulting from this eligible work, such as temporary labor costs, overtime payroll, equipment, and material fees.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Once a disaster has occurred, and the Government has declared a state of emergency, the Government will evaluate the recovery capabilities of the state/province and local governments. If it is determined that the damage is beyond their recovery capability, the governor will normally send a request letter to the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), directed through the Regional Director of the appropriate Global Bank region. The DRRRF Steering Committee then decides whether or not to the DRRRF should get involved.

After a DRRRF Steering Committee decision has been made, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund will designate the area eligible for assistance and announce the types of assistance available.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) international cooperation encompasses various means of implementation in addition to financial support. Technical cooperation, capacity building, and technology transfer are as instrumental to disaster risk reduction as financing. The emphasis of the DRRRF on science makes technical cooperation, technology transfer, and exchange of experts particularly important.

International cooperation and global partnership is critical to disaster reduction and to post-disaster reconstruction and recovery, and derives directly from the guiding principles enshrined in the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund as all States, particularly developing countries need support to strengthen their capacity to prevent and reduce disaster risk, support that needs to contribute to and complement national efforts.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund fosters coordinated, sustained, and adequate international support. The DRRRF is developing ways and means to incorporate disaster risk reduction measures into development assistance programs within and across all sectors. In this context, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund and Global Bank and other Global Bank Group entities and agencies have a critical role to play through the provision of risk-informed financial support and loans which support the Global Bank Group’s integrated vision of disaster risk management across sectors and the full engagement of institutions and stakeholders.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Promoting and enhancing action on the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies to States, in particular, developing countries is critical to supporting action on mitigation of greenhouse gases and adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort, as appropriate, is supported by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial Mechanism, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to States, in particular developing countries.

Intellectual property rights and patents
In the context of the priority concerning understanding disaster risk, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund identifies the importance of encouraging the availability of copyrighted and patented materials, including through negotiated concessions. These are certainly an area where the DRRRF normative work is of prime importance.

Disaster risk reduction-informed development assistance
International cooperation is essential in managing disaster risk. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund incorporates disaster risk reduction measures into development assistance programmes within and across all sectors.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Given that disaster risk is on the rise, the continued strengthening of normative frameworks for early warning and disaster response remains of primary importance. Various dimensions would need to be taken into account, such accessibility, multi‐hazard, and multi-sector approach, attribution of powers and resources for local action.

Early warning and preparedness systems have the potential to significantly reduce the loss of life and livelihoods from disasters, simultaneously building resilience and supporting the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The DRRRF’s work in this area supports countries with comprehensive multi-hazard early warning systems, as well as the development of medium and long-term forecasting capacities.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund supports a variety of disaster risk reduction programmes to prevent or minimize damage caused by disasters through early warning systems, disaster preparedness, and mitigation efforts, as well as training for disaster response.

Many the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund programmes improve collection and use of data on disaster risks, including building capacity and infrastructure to observe, analyze, and forecast hazards. These may include mapping hazards, developing people-centered early warning systems, and facilitating the exchange of information on risks. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund also supports the development of information-sharing systems and services, which may involve strengthening networks and promoting dialogue and cooperation among scientific communities and practitioners.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund funds training and learning programs at a community level, for local authorities, and for targeted sectors. Preparedness for response addresses the need to plan for events where managing the risk proves too costly or not feasible. This area of programming directly links disaster risk reduction with disaster management and recovery. In this vein, the DRRRF works to strengthen policy; build technical and institutional capacities; support dialogue, information exchange, coordination and stakeholder engagement; stockpile commodities that may be needed in response; and review and update disaster preparedness and contingency plans.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund” or “GB DRRRF”) framework considers the importance of fiscal and financial instruments in the context of investments for resilience and the integration of disaster risk consideration therein.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund address the barrier to finance in adaptation, sustainable agriculture, energy efficiency, renewable energy, disaster recovery and disaster risk insurance with an innovative financial instrument that has the potential for scaling up financing for a low-carbon, climate-resilient economy.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund aims to increase governments’ financial response capacity to natural disasters. The DRRRF is one of the five pillars of the Global Bank - DRRRF’s comprehensive Disaster Risk Management (DRM) framework which promotes the mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in a broader country development agenda. This is in line with the implementation of Priority Action Number Four of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) – to reduce disaster risk by addressing underlying key factors. Additionally, the G20 and Sendai Report have advanced disaster risk management as a crucial area of focus.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund” or “GB DRRRF”) recognises the need for and gives priority to planning for recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction ahead of disasters. Such initiatives require the engagement of executive and legislative institutions and stakeholders at local and national levels in light of the socio, economic, and political complexities and the coordination requirements. Normative provisions which anticipate and regulate recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction through a Build Back Better approach are essential.

Through Track I, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund works to enhance global and regional advocacy to promote the implementation of the Sendai Framework targets by 2030 in partnership with the United Nations and other international organizations. Through advocacy and continuous engagement with key regional organizations, the partnership will help to elevate disaster risk management (DRM) as a key priority for policy-makers, governments and practitioners, thereby building demand for more targeted country disaster risk management programs, particularly in high-risk, low and middle-income countries.

Climate change has become one of the world’s foremost policy challenges. In line with its mandate and expertise, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund together with Global Bank focuses on the humanitarian, fiscal, financial, and macroeconomic challenges. The DRRRF also advises (e.g., through technical assistance to member countries) on the appropriate design of resilient infrastructure development, carbon pricing and fiscal reforms to promote greener growth more broadly, particularly with regard to getting prices right in energy and transportation systems to reflect environmental costs and building resilience to climate risks.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund” or “GB DRRRF”) places particular emphasis on coordination, and especially on the role of national and local coordination multi-stakeholder forums, such as national and local platforms for disaster risk reduction. In particular in the area of risk identification; building knowledge and awareness, including through campaigns; management, including sharing and dissemination of disaster risk information and data; reporting on the status of disaster risk and progress toward implementation of strategies, plans, and policies; and facilitating multi-sector cooperation.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund” or “GB DRRRF”) emphasis is to manage the underlying drivers of disaster risk through enhancing understanding of disaster risk, governance for disaster risk reduction, investment and measures to strengthen resilience, and preparing for recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – Umbrella Trust Fund priority areas are:

  • Priority 1: Understanding Disaster Risk: Understanding disaster risk in its extent and genesis, including its drivers, is particularly critical to the DRRRF in light of the major shift in emphasis on risk present in the expected outcome, and, accordingly, the need to manage risk in and of itself.
  • Priority 2: Disaster Risk Governance: The DRRRF works to strengthen disaster risk reduction governance in its institutional and participatory aspects at national and local levels. While restating the mainstreaming and integration of disaster risk reduction across all sectors, it puts forward a renewed paradigm to achieve it.
  • Priority 3: Investing in Resilience: Priority area III of the DRRRF is particularly dependent on strong coordination and coherence in the development and implementation of sector policies and programs as well as the implementation of international instruments such as those concerning sustainable development, climate change and variability, and financing. The DRRRF makes a strong call for investing more resources in resilience and ensuring that risk-informed investments be made by both the public and the private sectors, and that disaster risk reduction considerations and measures be integrated into financial and fiscal instruments.
  • Priority 4: Preparedness to “Build Back Better”:  Priority area IV of the DRRRF represents an important mix of continuity and innovation. The continuity aspect of the DRRRF is focused on the need to further improve preparedness for response, including through a renewed commitment toward early warning systems, which be multi‐hazards and multi‐sectoral, and the preservation of the functioning of critical infrastructures for the continued provision of essential services. It also includes the anticipation of “cascading disasters,” i.e., disasters which are magnified by multiple, sequential and interconnected hazards. Attention is also given to evacuation and displacement.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrtf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Disaster risk management was universally endorsed as a development priority through the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in 2005. This framework is an agreement signed by 168 governments and international organizations, including the Global Bank Group and the United Nations, to support disaster prevention across the world.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) is responding to the growing demand from its clients, building disaster resilience through five core areas focusing on:

  • Risk Identification: By understanding disaster risks and anticipating the potential impacts of natural hazards, disaster and climate risk assessments can help governments, communities, businesses, and individuals make informed decisions to manage that risk.
  • Risk Reduction: Disaster risk information can inform different development strategies, plans and projects that can, in turn, reduce risks. This can either be done by avoiding the creation of new risks by mainstreaming in new investments, or improved territorial planning or building practices, or by addressing existing risks, such as retrofitting critical infrastructure, the construction of embankment systems, etc.
  • Preparedness: Adequate preparedness measures are essential because disaster risk can never be completely eliminated. Preparedness through early warning systems save lives and protect livelihoods and is one of the most cost-effective ways to reduce the impact of disasters. Preparedness activities need to include actionable contingency plans down to local and community level to respond to the effects of disasters.
  • Financial Protection: Financial protection strategies protect governments, businesses, and households from the economic burden of disasters. These strategies can include programs to increase the financial capacity of the state to respond to an emergency, whilst protecting the fiscal balance. They also promote the deepening of insurance markets at a sovereign and household level, and social protection strategies for the poorest.
  • Resilient Reconstruction: The challenge of reconstruction also presents an opportunity to promote disaster risk management through integrated resilient recovery and reconstruction planning that will drive longer-term resilient development.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund”, “GB DRRRF” or “DRRRF”) is working to build resilience in vulnerable communities around the globe. The DRRRF is a multi-donor partnership and grant-making financing mechanism. Its purpose is mainstreaming climate change to help achieve the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 - a decade-long plan to help make the world safer from disasters caused by natural hazards — and to support the implementation of the Global Climate Agreement in Paris, and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR), was adopted at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), held on March 14-18, 2015 in Sendai, Japan, and will guide action on disaster risk reduction worldwide for the next 15 years.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund supports countries around the world in mainstreaming a comprehensive and integrated approach to disaster risk management (DRM) into development. The DRRRF was established in October 20017, as a Global Bank Group-supported partnership of donor and recipient countries and international organizations to further reduce the risks from natural disasters and promote international and regional cooperation and to lessen the vulnerability of developed and developing countries alike. The DRRRF supports on-the-ground technical assistance to help developed, and developing countries integrate disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change adaptation into development strategies, policies and investment programs, including post-disaster recovery and reconstruction.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund disaster risk management activities are part of a comprehensive framework. This framework focuses on five core areas of risk management and systematically addressing each core area: risk identification, risk reduction, emergency preparedness, financial protection, and sustainable recovery and reconstruction.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

DRRRF’s strategy is underpinned by seven operating principles:

  1. Demand-driven approach to ensure maximum impact:  The scale of DRRRF support will be determined by client demand and depend on its ability to make progress with providing additional financing, facilitating the transfer of technology, and building knowledge and capacity.
  1. Leveraging development investments and policies: The DRRRF climate actions will facilitate an effective response to client countries’ demands, by cooperating with national and regional institutions and fostering the mainstreaming of climate dimensions into development. The DRRRF activities are organized along four top-level priorities: (i) Support Transformational Policies and Institutions; (ii) Leverage Resources; (iii) Scale up Climate Action; and (iv) Align Internal Processes and Work with Others.
  1. Empowering women and mainstreaming gender: The DRRRF main­streamed gender equality considerations into the entire project cycle to enhance the efficacy of climate change mitigation and adaptation interventions, starting from the identification of prior­ity interventions to achieve the climate management goals of a given jurisdiction or entity.
  1. Focusing on inclusive design and participation, Leave No One Behind: The DRRRF focuses on three areas of support to democratic governance: (1) Fostering inclusive participation; (2) Strengthening accountable and responsive governing institutions; and (3) Grounding democratic governance in international principles. The DRRRF will assist in the identification of effective interventions strengthening participation by the poorest social sectors, as well as by women, youth, persons living with disabilities, and indigenous people.
  1. Jointly addressing disaster and climate risk: The DRRRF will strive to increase the share of adaptation and mitigation co-benefits, improve resilience by further mainstreaming climate change in country programs, encourage investments in climate-smart infrastructure, promote climate-smart cities and agriculture, and further refine and design contingent instruments to deal with disaster risks.
  1. Developing knowledge and sharing best practices.  The DRRRF conducts global and regional communication campaigns as instruments for public awareness and education. Each builds on the existing ones to promote a culture of disaster prevention, resilience and responsible citizenship, generate an understanding of disaster risk, support mutual learning, and share experiences.  The campaigns encourage public and private stakeholders to engage actively in such initiatives and to develop new ones at the local, national, regional and global levels
  1. Prioritizing a results-oriented approach:  The DRRRF's commitment to improving aid and development effectiveness through development cooperation is reflected in its endorsement of key international agreements. These include the 2005 Paris Declaration, the 2008 Accra Agenda for Action, the 2011 Busan Outcome Document and the 2014 Mexico Communique. The key principles of development effectiveness, defined in the Busan outcome are:
  • Country ownership
  • Transparency and accountability
  • Focus on results

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Since the adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action in 2005, as documented in national and regional progress reports on its implementation as well as in other global reports, progress has been achieved in reducing disaster risk at local, national, regional and global levels by countries and other relevant stakeholders, leading to a decrease in mortality in the case of some hazards.   Reducing disaster risk is a cost-effective investment in preventing future losses. Effective disaster risk management contributes to sustainable development. Countries have enhanced their capacities in disaster risk management.  International mechanisms for strategic advice, coordination and partnership development for disaster risk reduction, such as the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), as well as other relevant international and regional forums for cooperation such as the Global Bank Atlantic Reconstruction Trust Fund (GBARTF), have been instrumental in the development of policies and strategies and the advancement of knowledge and mutual learning.  Overall, the Hyogo Framework for Action has been an important instrument for raising public and institutional awareness, generating political commitment and focusing and catalysing actions by a wide range of stakeholders at all levels.

Over the same ten-year time frame, however, disasters have continued to exact a heavy toll and, as a result, the well-being and safety of persons, communities, and countries as a whole have been affected. Over 700 thousand people have lost their lives, over 1.4 million have been injured and approximately 23 million have been made homeless as a result of disasters. Overall, more than 1.5 billion people have been affected by disasters in various ways, with women, children and people in vulnerable situations disproportionately affected. The total economic loss was more than $1.3 trillion. In addition, between 2008 and 2012, 144 million people were displaced by disasters.

Disasters, many of which are exacerbated by climate change and which are increasing in frequency and intensity, significantly impede progress towards sustainable development. Evidence indicates that exposure of persons and assets in all countries has increased faster than vulnerability has decreased, thus generating new risks and a steady rise in disaster-related losses, with a significant economic, social, health, cultural and environmental impact in the short, medium and long-term, especially at the local and community levels. Recurring small-scale disasters and slow-onset disasters particularly affect communities, households and small and medium-sized enterprises, constituting a high percentage of all losses. All countries – especially developing countries, where the mortality and economic losses from disasters are disproportionately higher – are faced with increasing levels of possible hidden costs and challenges in order to meet financial and other obligations.

The Global Bank Disaster Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund climate action will be driven by client demand, focusing on those activities that support the Global Bank’s core mission and build on its comparative advantage. The actions proposed a focus on supporting client demand, recognizing that client needs are different. The Action Plan focuses on supporting the Global Bank Group core mission of supporting the economic and social development efforts of the less developed and developing countries as they seek achievement of internationally agreed upon development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration and the Sustainable Development Goals, and to implement the recommendations of major United Nations conferences and summits. The goals lay out a blueprint for the Global Bank Group, setting its priorities and measuring its results. And it builds on the Global Bank Group comparative advantage to tackle complex, multisectoral problems in an integrated way combining all of its instruments (funding, knowledge, and convening power), its local presence, but global reach and experience, its deep technical expertise and multisectoral integration, and its ability to work across both the public and private sectors.

A comparative detail analysis of the Global Bank Disaster Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is available upon request.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

In this context, the Strategic Framework on Development and Climate Change for the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) the DRRRF will support specific needs and priorities of its diverse clients. Six action areas — each providing tools for supporting both adaptation and actions with mitigation co-benefits — will allow the DRRRF’s entities to build on their relative strengths, increase its synergies, and partner with external players, basing the division of labor on the comparative advantages and mandates:

  1. Support climate actions in country-led development processes;
  1. Mobilize additional concessional and innovative finance;
  1. Facilitate the development of market-based financing mechanisms;
  1. Leverage private sector resources;
  1. Support accelerated development and deployment of new technologies; and
  1. Step up policy research, knowledge, and capacity building.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Natural and human-induced disasters adversely affect hundreds of millions of people every year. In an effort to minimize the impact on vulnerable populations, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund”, “GB DRRRF” or “DRRRF”) supports various disaster risk reduction (DRR) programs aimed at saving lives; protecting livelihoods, assets, and infrastructure before, during, and after a disaster; and increasing communities’ resilience to natural hazards. The DRRRF programs promote self-sufficiency in disaster risk reduction by strengthening the capacity of governments at all levels and communities to identify, manage, and reduce the impacts of natural disasters through sustainable, multi-sectoral programs, as well as to prepare for and respond to potential crises in a timely and efficient manner.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund and implementing partners engage communities, national and local governments, international and regional organizations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to develop effective disaster risk reduction strategies tailored to the needs of at-risk populations. The DRRRF promotes dialogue and coordinated action among stakeholders to address disaster risk reduction in an integrated and comprehensive manner. In addition to supporting regional and country-level programming related to floods, droughts, cyclones, extreme weather events, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanoes, the DRRRF provides technical assistance and supports global disaster risk reduction initiatives. These initiatives will reduce vulnerability to natural hazards affecting the community or household, as well as build the resilience of the community.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is among the global leaders in supporting worldwide disaster risk reduction activities, as well as participates in larger Global Bank Group efforts. The DRRRF participates in disaster risk reduction globally through membership on governing boards, influencing the development of sound disaster risk reduction policies among key partners, such as U.N. humanitarian agencies. In addition, the DRRRF disaster risk reduction and sectoral experts contribute to the development of technical guidelines and provided technical expertise to host nations on disaster risk reduction.

Many countries face a wide range of challenges and constraints in their efforts to reduce disaster vulnerability. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is implementing activities in various sectors to assist in preparedness for and reduction of disasters worldwide, including agriculture and food security, health, nutrition, economic recovery and market systems, protection, shelter and settlements, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The DRRRF’s efforts focus on reducing the impact of natural hazards in vulnerable regions by enhancing local and regional early warning systems; improving local disaster planning and response, including search and rescue activities; strengthening conceptual and implementation models for improving food security; and building the capacity of international and local partners to reduce countries’ vulnerability to disasters.

Each of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund disaster risk reduction program promotes at least one of the five priorities identified by the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). Those are:

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) have the responsibility for coordinating the Global Bank Group relief efforts globally. These relief efforts include: (a) bringing risk reduction investments to the scale necessary to enable countries to achieve the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals; (b) supporting client countries to implement the resilience objectives specified in their Nationally Determined Contributions; (c) harmonizing results measurement for Nationally Determined Contributions; (d) increasing the availability and effectiveness of resilience financing for Small Island States; (e) strengthening Disaster Risk Management (DRM) tools and expanding financial solutions for fast-growing cities in the context of rapid urbanization, populations growth, and climate change; (f) increasing access to early warning and risk information; (g) working with the private sector to address gaps in risk financing; (h) assisting countries transfer risk to the markets through the intermediation of risk management transactions; and (i) working with the humanitarian community to address pressing needs, ahead of the World Humanitarian Summit in 2018.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund supports the post-disaster Action Plans for the Recovery and Development and related initiatives. The DRRRF mobilizes, coordinates and allocates contributions from bilateral, multilateral, corporate and other donors to finance high-priority projects reconstruction and programmes and budget support globally.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund provides funding to the most critical humanitarian priorities based on expert advice from aid workers and agreed planning strategies. Funding decisions are made on the ground, allowing GBARTF to respond to evolving needs and to address critical gaps not covered by other humanitarian funding. This enables the humanitarian community to better reach the most vulnerable and to use available resources more effectively and efficiently.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do andhHow we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

 

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) was established in 2017 by the Global Bank Group (the “Bank Group”) to facilitate the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). It was created to be the focal point in the Global Bank Group for the coordination of disaster risk reduction and ensures synergies among the relevant activities of Global Bank Group agencies and Funds and Programmes, and related activities in socio-economic and humanitarian fields.

The purpose of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is mainstreaming climate change to help achieve the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 - a decade-long plan to help make the world safer from disasters caused by natural hazards — and to support the implementation of the Global Climate Agreement in Paris, and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR), was adopted at the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), held on March 14-18, 2015 in Sendai, Japan, and will guide action on disaster risk reduction worldwide for the next 15 years.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Since the adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action in 2005 progress has been achieved in reducing disaster risk at local, national, regional and global levels by countries and other relevant stakeholders, leading to a decrease in mortality in the case of some hazards. Reducing disaster risk is a cost-effective investment in preventing future losses. Effective disaster risk management contributes to sustainable development.     Countries have enhanced their capacities in disaster risk management.  International mechanisms for strategic advice, coordination and partnership development for disaster risk reduction, such as the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), as well as other relevant international and regional platforms for cooperation such as the Global Bank Atlantic Reconstruction Trust Fund (GBARTF), have been instrumental in the development of policies and strategies and the advancement of knowledge and mutual learning.  Overall, the Hyogo Framework for Action has been an important instrument for raising public and institutional awareness, generating political commitment and focusing and catalyzing actions by a wide range of stakeholders at all levels.

Over the same ten-year time frame, however,  disasters have continued to exact a heavy toll and, as a result, the well-being and safety of persons, communities, and countries as a whole have been affected. Over 700 thousand people have lost their lives, over 1.4 million have been injured, and approximately 23 million have been rendered homeless as a result of disasters. Overall, more than 1.5 billion people have been affected by disasters in various ways, with women, children and people in vulnerable situations disproportionately affected. The total economic loss was more than $1.3 trillion. In addition, between 2008 and 2012, 144 million people were displaced by disasters.

Disasters, many of which are exacerbated by climate change and which are increasing in frequency and intensity, significantly impede progress towards sustainable development. Evidence indicates that exposure of persons and assets in all countries has increased faster than vulnerability has decreased. These disasters generate new risks and a steady rise in disaster-related losses, with significant economic, social, health, cultural and environmental impact in the short, medium and long-term, especially at the local and community levels. Recurring small-scale disasters and slow-onset disasters particularly affect communities, households and small and medium-sized enterprises, constituting a high percentage of all losses. All countries – especially developing countries, where the mortality and economic losses from disasters are disproportionately higher – are faced with increasing levels of possible hidden costs and challenges to meet financial and other obligations.

In December 2015, the unanimously adopted Paris Agreement, which was negotiated by representatives of 195 countries, is a major breakthrough by the international community in resolving climate change. This is the first climate change agreement that includes commitments by all signatories, in the form of Nationally Determined Contributions1. Countries have committed to undertake actions or achieve domestic targets with a view of holding the increase in global average temperature to below 2 degrees Celsius, and pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Countries also plan to increase their ability to adapt to adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate change resilience. Many developing countries stress that climate finance is vital to their ability to fully deliver on their contributions and increase their level of ambition over time. For the Global Bank Group, the Paris Agreement becomes the foundation for its contribution to efficient and effective low-carbon and climate-resilient development.

To enable a successful transition to a low-carbon climate-resilient global economy as envisaged in the Paris Agreement, massive amounts of climate finance must flow to support countries’ achievement of their Nationally Determined Contributions and other low-carbon and climate resilience activities. The Global Bank through the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund provides mitigation and adaptation finance in the context of the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change and has strengthened its commitment to work with clients, other development finance institutions, the private sector, and stakeholders to tackle climate challenge with targeted and innovative finance.

Global Bank Group does this in the context of the development needs of its clients, the Sustainable Development Goals, and the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions for climate action submitted by 180 countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Global Bank Group already provide policy, advisory, financial, and technical support to countries as they transition toward lower carbon, more climate-resilient future

Global Bank Group has adopted new ambitious multi-year targets in late 2015 to rapidly expand climate finance activities, adding to the momentum leading up to the Paris Agreement. The Global Bank Group is scaling up related activities to strengthen policy, build institutional capacity, provide access to finance, and deliver technical support to client countries and their private sectors.

The Global Bank Group has committed to addressing disaster and climate risk throughout all of its development and humanitarian work.

The Global Bank Group has committed to:

  • Make disaster risk reduction a priority for the Global Bank Group organizations;
  • Ensure timely, coordinated and high-quality assistance to all countries where disaster losses pose a threat to people’s health and development; and,
  • Ensure disaster risk reduction for resilience is central to Global Bank Group post-2015 development agenda

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrtf.org/about-us/who-we-are

 
1Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) is a term used under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that all countries that signed the UNFCCC were asked to publish in the lead up to the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference held in Paris, France in December 2015. These intended contributions were determined without prejudice to the legal nature of the contributions. The term was intended as a compromise between "quantified emissions limitation and reduction objective" (QUELROs) and "nationally appropriate mitigation actions" (NAMAs) that the Kyoto Protocol used to describe the different legal obligations of developed and developing countries. Under the Paris Agreement, adopted in December 2015, the INDC will become the first Nationally Determined Contribution when a country ratifies the agreement, unless they decide to submit a new NDC at the same time. Once the Paris Agreement is ratified, the NDC will become the first greenhouse gas targets under the UNFCCC that applied equally to both developed and developing countries.

 

The sponsor of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF” or “DRRRF”) is the Global Bank.

Owned by the Global Bank Group1, the Bank for International Development and Reconstruction, known as the Global Bank borrows in the international capital markets (“BIDR,” “Global Bank,” or “Bank”) is the Global Bank Group’s long-term sovereign lending institution. As a development bank with an agenda driven by G-7/G-8 and G-20-priorities, its leading priority is to promote global economic and social development. Unlike the multilateral development banks (MDBs)2, Global Bank is not restricted to operating only in developing countries.

For interesting facts about the G-7/G-8 and G20:

The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction is a full-fledged private sector global development bank, in formation, – the world’s second global development bank – positioned next to the World Bank and the preeminent regional development banks (MDBs).

The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction was founded in 2013 to help developed, and developing countries achieve economic and social development through financing primarily public sector (sovereign) infrastructure projects and sustainable development. BIDR is one of five institutions that make up the Global Bank Group. BIDR is the part of the Global Bank Group that works with creditworthy countries to promote sustainable, equitable and job-creating growth, reduce poverty and address issues of regional and global importance.

Global Bank’s main goals are to end poverty and hunger and to achieve sustainable development in its three dimensions through promoting inclusive economic growth, protecting the environment, and promoting social inclusion.

The Global Bank’s activities are focused on developing countries, in fields such as human development (e.g. education, health), agriculture and rural development (e.g. irrigation and rural services), environmental protection (e.g., pollution reduction, establishing and enforcing regulations), infrastructure (e.g. roads, urban regeneration, and electricity), large industrial construction projects, and governance (e.g. anti-corruption, institutions development).

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For more information about the Global Bank, what we do and how we do it, please go to the About Us Section of the Global Bank Website at http://www.global-bank.org

 
1Global Bank Group, consisting of five institutions, represents, develops and supports the collective interests of its business interests around the world. One of these institutions is The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction known as the Global Bank,(“BIDR,” “Global Bank,” or “Bank”).  Global Bank is a full-fledged private sector global development bank, in formation, with legal and regulatory rights including formal approval to utilize the term "Bank" pending – the world’s second global development bank – positioned next to the World Bank and the preeminent regional development banks (MDBs).  The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction borrows in the international capital markets.
2The Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) are institutions that provide financial support and professional advice for economic and social development activities in developing countries. The MDBs provide financial and technical support to developing countries to help them strengthen economic management and reduce poverty. Together, the MDBs provide support to the world's poorest in every corner of the globe, strengthening institutions, rebuilding states, addressing the effects of climate change, and fostering economic growth and entrepreneurship.

 

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) expected outcome and goal: “The substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries”

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund prevents new, and reduces existing, disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) goal is to prevent new, and reduce existing, disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience.

To support the assessment of global progress in achieving the outcome and goal of the present Framework, seven global targets have been agreed. These targets will be measured at the global level and will be complemented by work to develop appropriate indicators. National targets and indicators will contribute to the achievement of the outcome and goal of the present Framework. The seven global targets are:

The seven global targets are:

  • Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to contribute to lower the average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020–2030 compared to the period 2005–2015;
  • Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to contribute to lower the average global figure per 100,000 in the decade 2020–2030 compared to the period 2005–2015;
  • Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030;
  • Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030;
  • Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020;
  • Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of the present Framework by 2030;
  • Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to people by 2030.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund”, “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) was established in 2017 by the Global Bank Group (the “Bank Group”) to facilitate the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). It was created to be the focal point in the Global Bank Group for the coordination of disaster risk reduction and ensures synergies among the relevant activities of Global Bank Group agencies and regional organisations, and related activities in socio-economic and humanitarian fields.

DRRRF’s mission is centered on supporting the implementation, follow-up, and review of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, including by fostering coherence with other international instruments, such as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its Sustainable Development Goals, as well as the Paris Agreement on climate change. As such, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund champions and supports the integration of disaster risk management across different areas of work of the Global Bank Group and of its Members and Non-Member States as well as among a broad range of key stakeholders, including the private sector and civil society.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund prevents new and reduces existing disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) established in October 2017, as a Global Bank Group-supported partnership of donor and recipient countries and international organizations. Created to reduce the risks from natural disasters and promote international and regional cooperation to lessen the vulnerability of developed and developing countries alike, the DRRRF supports on-the-ground technical assistance to help developed and developing countries integrate disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change adaptation into development strategies, policies and investment programs, including post-disaster recovery and reconstruction.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is working to build resilience in vulnerable communities around the globe. The DRRRF is a multi-donor partnership and grant-making financing mechanism. Its purpose is mainstreaming climate change to help achieve the goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 - a decade-long plan to help make the world safer from disasters caused by natural hazards — and to support the implementation of the Global Climate Agreement in Paris, and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR), was adopted at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), held on March 14-18, 2015 in Sendai, Japan, and will guide action on disaster risk reduction worldwide for the next 15 years.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund has three main business lines to achieve its development objectives at the global, regional and country levels.

  • Track 1: Global and regional support to ISDR System: The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) is a committed member of the ISDR system. Together with the ISDR Secretariat, we are formulating a results-oriented work program. This track will support global advocacy, knowledge sharing, support development of information management tools and disseminate and exchange emerging notions of best practice facilitated through global and regional organizations under the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) System.
  • Track 2: Support to countries for developing investment frameworks for disaster risk prevention and mitigation: This track will operate through a multi-donor trust fund and support efforts by developing country governments to enhance investments in risk reduction. Developing a policy option to deal with risks including long-term climate change issues will be made integral to a long-term and sustainable development strategy.1 Countries prone to high disaster risks will be the primary clients. Specific country plans, particularly the Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSs) and Country Assistance Strategies (CASs) will ensure ownership, and implementation follow through.
  • Track 3: Standby Recovery Financing Facility (SRFF): (in pipeline) This Standby Recovery Financing track, proposed to be operated through a mechanism linked to the Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GFIDR), is to support disaster-stricken countries’ immediate recovery needs before medium and long-term recovery programs are formulated and launched. However, a low-income country would be eligible for this only if pre-disaster preparedness and mitigation instruments (Track 2) have been institutionalized in the country, measured in terms of investments in risk reduction as a percentage of GDP or such others measures agreed by the partners of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund. This is being developed in close collaboration with Global Bank’s DRRRF team, and a position paper on this will be available soon for wider consultation.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

 
1Countries with more than 30% population and GDP in areas of risk to one or more hazards (Hotspots Study, The World Bank and Columbia University)

 

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) is a lead Global Bank Group agency working on many areas of resilience and disaster risk reduction (DRR) that are of critical importance globally.  It is hosted by the Global Bank.  The DRRRF  to support the States, in particular developing countries to mainstream disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in national development strategies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and the Sustainable Development. As a facility of the Global Bank, it is best placed amongst the development banks to do this. It also helps to build country capacity to manage disaster risks better, such as through the development and adoption of safer school and hospital designs. It has aligned its strategic objectives to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 and supports its implementation, specifically by “Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters.”

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund has prioritized 20 developing countries1, based on their vulnerability to natural disasters – countries that are disproportionately affected by the consequences of global warming (the “vulnerable 20” or the “V20”).  The DRRRF addresses the negative effects of global warming as a result of heightened socio-economic and environmental vulnerabilities. Approximately half these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa; a further 112 have been earmarked to receive Disaster Risk Management funding and technical support through DRRRF. The DRRRF pursues its objectives at the global, regional, and country levels through three Tracks of programming:

  • Track 1:  Global and Regional partnerships:   designed to enhance global and regional advocacy, partnerships, and knowledge management for mainstreaming disaster reduction.
  • Track 2:  Mainstreaming disaster reduction in development:  directed at ensuring risk assessments, risk mitigation, risk transfer, and emergency preparedness are incorporated into all strategic plans and programmes.  Track 2 also includes special initiatives such as the Economics of Disaster Risk Reduction initiative. These will support global, regional and country level efforts to generate economic evidence for disaster risk reduction.
  • Track 3:  Partnership for Sustainable Recovery:  a disaster recovery fund which aims to accelerate the transition from relief to longer-term recovery after a disaster.  This track supports co-operation among stakeholders in post-disaster damage loss and needs assessments globally.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund works in countries after a disaster hits, with a specific focus on recovery and reconstruction.  Post-disaster, DRRRF leads at the country level in preparing, organising and implementing co-ordinated Post Disaster Needs Assessments with key partners.  Globally, these assessments are recognised as an important leap forward in developing co-ordinated recovery operations.  This comprehensive damage and loss assessment provided the foundation for the subsequent the Action Plan for National Recovery and Development. 

The Action Plan for National Recovery and Development articulated the government priorities for recovery, reconstruction, and development. It leads to a shared understanding between the government and development partners of how to help recover and begin the reconstruction process. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is also contributing to harmonisation between development actors and the Government.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is developing a Results-Based Management System.  This framework has the potential to harmonise resilience and disaster risk reduction objectives across countries and with all partners. Greater joining up in this way will ensure that countries progress faster towards achieving the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction Goals 2015-2030, and reducing the loss of lives and assets.  The DRRRF has been instrumental in agreeing the Results Based Management System, and will continue to push for its adoption in all DRRRF’s priority countries.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

 
1Burkina Faso, Djibouti, Ghana, Haiti, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mozambique, Nepal, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Senegal, Solomon Islands, Togo, Ethiopia, Vietnam and Yemen.
2Bangladesh, Cambodia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, LAO PDR, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vanuatu

 

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) supports priorities for action outlined in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, as well as contribute to achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. The DRRRF Will:
 

  • Promoting open access to risk information: The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund utilizes cutting-edge science and technology to create robust disaster risk information that is openly available and easily understandable by all actors responsible for managing disaster and climate risk. Moreover, DRRRF supports communities to map their exposure to disasters and climate change, ensuring that their voice and knowledge is part of the resilience solution.
  • Promoting resilient infrastructure: Public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures are essential to enhance the economic, social, health and cultural resilience of persons, communities, countries and their assets, as well as the environment. These can be drivers of innovation, growth and job creation. Such measures are cost-effective and instrumental to save lives, prevent and reduce losses and ensure effective recovery and rehabilitation. The objective of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund in infrastructure is to improve alignment and coordination between established and new infrastructure initiatives as well as among multilateral and national development banks, national  institutions and the private sector in order to bridge the ‘infrastructure investment gap’ and to facilitate the implementation of sustainable, accessible and resilient infrastructure for all State, particularly for developing countries.
  • Building resilience at the community level: Over the past 20 years, typhoons, floods, droughts, earthquakes and other natural hazards have claimed 1.35 million lives and affected on average 218 million people per year. They also have devastating effects on socio-economic development with a global economic impact since 2005 surpassing USD 1.3 trillion, mostly in developing countries. If better preparedness planning was in place, time, money and lives could have been saved. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund to prevent new and reduce existing disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience.
  • Deepening engagements in resilience to climate change: Promoting and enhancing action on the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies to States, in particular developing countries is critical to supporting action on mitigation of greenhouse gases and adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort, as appropriate, is supported by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund, including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial Mechanism, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to States, in particular developing countries.
  • Enabling resilient recovery: In the face of apparently insurmountable odds, Global Bank Group (the “Bank Group”) has found ways to rebuild smarter, stronger, safer and faster. We are successful because, before disaster strikes, we have already laid the groundwork by fortifying the Bank Group’s physical, digital, financial, and societal infrastructure in an effort to better mitigate and manage post-crisis reconstruction.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is mobilising large-scale financing for effective post-disaster reconstruction and recovery efforts including leveraging public and private climate finance in an effective, catalytic manner to an increased adaptive capacity and a low greenhouse gas emission and climate-resilient development, aiding in the achievement of related Sustainable Development Goals.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

To underscore the importance of peace and security as a central component of the four dimensions of sustainable development. Goal 1 includes a focus on vulnerable regions, including post-conflict regions, and a target to address conflict and violence. Goal 4 includes a target on reducing violence against individuals, especially women and children, which needs to be operationalized at the country level. This target addresses issues of gender-based violence and child protection, as well as personal security, which represent a critical challenge in conflict and post-conflict settings. Indeed, many of the proposed goals address the structural causes of conflict such as inequality and exclusion, extreme poverty in all its forms, and poor governance.

The broader political issues of peace and security, which are typically addressed by the Security Council of the United Nations, go beyond the scope of the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The post-2015 global policy framework, which will include more than the Sustainable Development Goals themselves, should also draw attention to the long-standing but still unfulfilled objective of ridding the world of nuclear weapons.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will set legally binding targets among nations. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will not be legally binding and will not replace or hinder the work of the UNFCCC. Rather, the Sustainable Development Goals, like the Millennium Development Goals today, will provide a global, easily understood, normative framework to mobilize all stakeholders in the fight for sustainable development, which must include efforts to curb human-induced climate change. The Sustainable Development Goals should therefore help the public to understand the critical issues, the solutions, and the urgency of changing course. Similar considerations apply to biodiversity, human rights, and other areas where legally binding international conventions have been adopted, but which also need to be addressed by the Sustainable Development Goals. The Sustainable Development Goals need to get to the crux of the matter on climate change: that is, heading off the rapidly growing dangers. Because the science of climate change continues to evolve, it is important to define the related Sustainable Development Goals so that it can evolve with the progress of scientific understanding and reflect new and hopefully stronger commitments made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Today’s consensus on avoiding a 2°C increase in temperature, for example, may not be ambitious enough according to a growing body of scientific evidence. This is especially troubling since the world is far off course from even achieving the 2°C target.

The world has adopted the Aichi Biodiversity targets as quantitative outcome targets for biodiversity and ecosystems. These 20 targets include outcome objectives to be achieved by 2020. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) targets cannot replicate the full set of Aichi targets, and it strikes us as impossible to pick one ecosystem or one quantitative target over the others. Countries therefore need to set their own quantitative targets under the Sustainable Development Goals, which should ideally be consistent with the Aichi targets. It was proposed to distinguish between ecosystem management at the national and subnational level (first target) and regional or global efforts (second target). The latter are inherently more complex and require different institutional arrangements. Both are critical for sustainable development.

The proposed Sustainable Development Goals targets call for policies to ensure resilient and productive ecosystems. A central objective of such policies must be to address the drivers of ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss, which includes applying the “polluter pays” and “payment for ecosystem services” principles. Suitable indicators, including halting the loss of biodiversity, can and should be constructed at national/local and regional/global levels to measure the achievement of this target across a broad range of ecosystems.

Urban2 sustainable development is a central challenge and a major opportunity for most countries, as urban and slum populations are rising rapidly. The urban share of the world’s population is expected to rise from 52 percent in 2010 to around 67 percent in 2050, and the urban share of GDP and employment will rise commensurately. If managed well, urbanization can create employment and prosperity, and become a central driver for ending extreme poverty and for strengthening social inclusion. If managed poorly, cities will deepen social exclusion and fail to generate enough jobs.

Urban sustainable development is complex, involving not only many sectors but also many political entities, including local neighborhoods, city governments, metropolitan areas, and national governments, which must empower cities and link them to rural areas. As a result, strategies for cities pose highly complex yet crucial challenges. An urban Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) is therefore important to mobilize and bring together the efforts of multiple actors and stakeholders (e.g. local authorities, national governments, businesses, knowledge institutions, and civil society) across a range of urban issues (e.g. urban jobs, housing, infrastructure, governance, disaster risk reduction, and climate change adaptation and mitigation) and mobilize the financial, institutional, and human resources to make this possible.

 
1In this document we use the terms “cities” and “urban areas” interchangeably to denote metropolitan areas and all urban centers that have economic or political importance

 

Providing access to safe water and sanitation, ensuring sound management of freshwater resources, and preventing water pollution are inter-related priority challenges of sustainable development that must be met for other goals and targets to be achieved Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Water access: Delivery models, technologies, and responsible actors for access to water and sanitation differ between urban and rural areas, so we propose to assign these challenges to the urban and rural goals, respectively. This has the added advantage of combining water supply and sanitation, which are often closely linked.

Water resources management: Integrated water resources management and the allocation of water across different uses is a cross-cutting requirement for all goals. Freshwater needs for agriculture (accounting for some 70 percent of freshwater withdrawals), industry, households, and the healthy functioning of ecosystems (sometimes referred to as “green water”) stand out as major challenges. Moreover, water-related disasters, such as floods and droughts, account for a large share of damage from natural disasters. Water resources management and associated disaster risk management cannot be pursued in isolation from the management of agriculture, cities, and ecosystems, so water is part of several goals. The proposed SDG 9 emphasizes the need for integrated water resources management. A suitable indicator for Target 9c might include the ratio of freshwater withdrawals to renewable freshwater supply which should be lower than one.

Water pollution: Water pollution is a separate management challenge. Although not limited to urban areas, water pollution is a significant urban challenge and is therefore included under SDG 7.

The question of how to deal with water challenges in the proposed Sustainable Development Goals has been intensely discussed in the Leadership Council. Some have argued for a stand-alone water goal partly to draw attention to the importance of water management. Overall, though, the proposals provide a sound basis for managing the various water challenges within the framework of ten Sustainable Development Goals, particularly if suitable indicators track the sustainable use of water resources, access to water supply, and water quality. 

Access to infrastructure is essential for ending extreme poverty in all its forms and promoting sustainable development. The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) divide the challenges of providing access to infrastructure between urban (SDG 7) and rural (SDG 6) areas. This division is motivated by the fact that infrastructure technologies, delivery models, and responsible actors vary significantly between urban and rural areas.

Many scholars and an increasing number of governments now collect data on subjective wellbeing (SWB). SWB refers to an individual's own report of his or her sense of happiness or life satisfaction. These subjective accounts have been shown to be systematic and informative of the individual and social conditions in a country that are conducive to a high quality of life. The proposed numerical targets for reducing tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol derive from the World Health Assembly resolution 66.10.2 propose the 2025 target of reducing harmful use of alcohol by 10% be increased to 20% by 2030.

Reducing youth unemployment is a core priority for most countries. The proposed SDG 3 focuses on high- quality primary and secondary education and on effective institutions (such as apprenticeships) that can help youth prepare for decent work. The third target focuses directly on the youth unemployment rate. Likewise, the agriculture goal (SDG 6) includes the need for rural job creation and development, whereas the urban goal (SDG 7) addresses urban employment under its first target.

Decoupling means a drop in primary resource use and pollution as economic growth proceeds. It is achieved through a combination of new technologies (e.g. photovoltaic electricity and wind power substituting for fossil fuels), investments in energy efficiency (e.g. reduced losses on the power grid, improved insulation for homes), the dematerialization of production (e.g. the shift from vinyl albums to online music and from books to e-books), and proper economic incentives for individuals, businesses, and governments.

Resource efficiency (more output per unit of resource input) is a necessary but not sufficient condition. Greater efficiency in oil and gas extraction (e.g. hydrofracking) can expand rather than reduce CO2 emissions. Greater efficiency in internal combustion engines can lead to larger cars rather than fuel savings. Thus, technological changes need to be combined with appropriate policy incentives.

There are many pessimists regarding decoupling who feel that the only way to limit resource use is to limit overall economic growth. We disagree. Decoupling has not yet been tried as a serious global strategy, and we believe that advances in areas such as information and communications technologies, energy technologies, materials science, advanced manufacturing processes, and agriculture will permit continued economic growth combined with a massive reduction in the use and waste of key primary commodities, a sharp drop in greenhouse gas emissions and other forms of pollution.

Most simply because it is the essence of proposed SDG 2. As emphasized throughout this document and in the “Framework of Programs on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns” adopted at United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), the use of environmental resources and pollution must be brought down to levels that can be sustained over the long run. This in turn will require a major decoupling of pollution and environmental resource use from rising living standards and economic growth, consistent with achieving a net reduction in both aggregate pollution and resource use. In many areas consumption and production patterns will need to change significantly. Yet, the key question is not the level of “consumption” or “production” per se, but their primary resource, pollution, and ecosystem implications. Consumption and production in an economic sense (i.e., improvement of material conditions) can grow provided they are decoupled from pollution and unsustainable natural resource use. This is the normative essence of SDG 2.

Modern Earth-systems science (including geology, climate science, hydrology, and ecology) makes clear that human activity is now dangerously impinging on vital Earth functions, including climate, the water cycle, the nitrogen cycle, biodiversity, ocean acidification, particulate pollution, and more. Scientists are identifying certain thresholds or “planetary boundaries” beyond which human activity can have dire effects on human wellbeing and on ecosystem functions everywhere. Unless human development respects these planetary boundaries, people in all countries are likely to face severe environmental degradation that could severely set back human development. Yet it is possible for countries to grow while respecting these boundaries, mainly by improving efficiency, shifting to sustainable technologies, restraining various kinds of wasteful behaviors, and by decelerating population growth more rapidly. The proposed SDG 2 therefore underscores the right to development for all countries within planetary boundaries. It is closely related to the better-known concept of sustainable consumption and production. This goal includes a target on economic growth as a key dimension of the right to development. A second target focuses on the need to measure and track the environmental impact of growth in every country by reforming national accounting systems. A third target focuses on the rapid attainment of population stabilization. The transformations needed for the world and for every country to respect planetary boundaries are addressed in the goals below (particularly SDGs 6 to 10).

Certain parts of the world, including the Sahel, the Horn of Africa (plus Yemen), the Great Lakes region of Central Africa, and parts of Central Asia, face extraordinary challenges as the result of the combination of extreme poverty, weak infrastructure, chronic violence, rapid population growth, and inherently difficult geographical conditions (such as being landlocked, small island states, extremely arid, highly vulnerable to droughts and floods, and/or having a high burden of communicable diseases such as malaria). Countries facing these tremendous and interconnected challenges need special international support, including timely and adequate external assistance. They also need a regional focus, since many of the problems (weak transportation, cross-border nomadism, displaced populations, droughts, epidemics, and conflicts) occur at the regional scale and must be addressed in part at that scale.

The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deal with inequalities in several ways:

i.     SDG 4 has explicit targets on ending discrimination and reducing relative poverty, which describes the proportion of households with incomes below 50 percent of the national median. Relative poverty is a widely used measure of inequality. 


ii.    Many of the goals emphasize universal access to various public services and infrastructure that
give every person, especially women, a fair chance at prosperity (note in particular SDGs 3 to 9). Achieving universal access will require that special strategies address deep-rooted inequalities across regions, gender, ethnicities, income levels, and other dimensions. 


Recommend that the Sustainable Development Goals indicators be disaggregated as much as possible by geography, income, socio-economic group, and other identifiers to track inequalities in Sustainable Development Goals outcomes. As described in Section V, for every Sustainable Development Goals call on countries to monitor and to end inequalities in outcomes across sub-populations. 

Several arguments have prompted the Leadership Council to include hunger and nutrition under extreme poverty:

i.     Hunger and malnutrition are challenges that affect rural as well as urban areas, so grouping hunger under a place-based “rural” goal might weaken the focus on urban hunger; 


ii.    Hunger is not only a function of food availability, which a goal focused on sustainable food production might suggest; 


iii.   Stunting and malnutrition are key dimensions of extreme poverty that give substance to the notion of “extreme poverty in all its forms”; and 


iv.   A poverty/hunger goal ensures full continuity with MDG 1. 


Note that in sub-Saharan Africa, the links between hunger and low agricultural productivity are especially acute, so that, in this region, the reduction of hunger and the achievement of sustainable agriculture are deeply intertwined. 

The term “extreme poverty in all its forms” for the multidimensional concept of poverty encapsulated in the Millennium Development Goals, comprising inter alia income poverty, hunger, gender inequality, lack of education, poor health, and lack of access to basic infrastructure services. Extreme income poverty or “absolute income poverty” is defined by the Global Bank Group as a per capita income of less than $1.25 per day. The measure social inclusion in part by the use of “relative poverty,” defined by the (OECD) as the proportion of households with incomes less than half of the national median income.

It is important that every target can be measured at the national or local level, but not every target can be defined globally in a meaningful way, for three distinct reasons:

i.     The starting points may differ too much across countries for a single meaningful quantitative standard at the global level; 


ii.    Some targets need to be adapted and quantified locally or may be relevant only in subsets of countries (e.g. those that refer to specific ecosystems); 


iii.   For some targets no global consensus exists today, and these still need to be negotiated, as is the case with greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. In the meantime, countries should establish their own plans and targets. 


In some cases, proposed numerical targets are presented in square brackets since these numbers are preliminary and may need to be reviewed by the corresponding technical communities.

Many targets call for “universal access” (e.g. to infrastructure) or “zero” deprivation (e.g. extreme poverty, hunger). For each such target, the technical communities and member states will need to define the precise quantitative standard for their commitment to “universal access” or “zero” deprivation. In most cases these standards will indeed be 100 percent or 0 percent, respectively, but there may be areas where it is technically impossible to achieve 100 percent access or 0 percent deprivation. In such cases countries should aim to get as close as possible to 100 percent or 0 percent, respectively.

Where possible, the Sustainable Development Goals should focus on outcomes, such as ending extreme poverty. Yet, the distinction between outcomes, outputs, and inputs needs to be handled pragmatically, and the design of goals and targets should be guided by approaches that are best suited to mobilize action and ensure accountability. For example, ensuring universal access to healthcare or high-quality early childhood development (ECD) are important commitments for every government. Goals and targets that focus on these outputs will ensure operational focus and accountability. In some instances it also makes sense to target inputs. For example, official development assistance (ODA) is critical for ensuring many Sustainable Development Goals and needs to be mobilized in every high-income country. Mobilizing resources for sustainable development is difficult, so subsuming official development assistance as an implicit input into every Sustainable Development Goal would make it harder for government leaders, citizens, and civil society organizations to argue for increased official development assistance. It would also weaken accountability for rich countries. Similar considerations apply, for example, to the proposed target on integrated reporting by governments and businesses on their contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals.

The targets proposed should be specified at the global and national level to ensure that they can be measured in a timely and accurate way using one or more indicators. The indicators should be well designed to enable data collection and monitoring. The statistical agencies should promote the use of advanced data tools, including remote sensing, real-time monitoring with smartphones, crowdsourcing, GIS mapping, and other techniques.

Several criteria have been identified for crafting the Sustainable Development Goals. They should be:

  1. Universal: The goals should be applicable to all countries. In particular they should address the needs of low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries. 

  2. Comprehensive: Together, the ten goals should spell out the principal challenges of sustainable 
development and provide a normative framework for the global partnership needed to address the profound and interconnected challenges the world faces. For example, the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) feels that climate change is such an important challenge that these words need to appear in the title of one of the goals. 

  3. Operational: To the extent possible, each goal should address and mobilize clearly defined knowledge communities comprising government departments, business, civil society, international organizations, and academia/research. Some goals therefore focus on specific operational or place-based challenges, such as urban management, climate change, or sustainable agriculture. Others focus on cross-cutting issues like gender equality or water management that must be addressed in every goal, but should also be highlighted through a dedicated goal. 

  4. Jargon-free and easy to understand: Children should be able to learn the goals at school as a clear introduction to sustainable development. To this end the wording of the goals needs to be free of jargon. Where important technical concepts (e.g. ecosystems) are needed these should be included and become part of the introduction to sustainable development. 

  5. SMART Targets: In general, targets should be “SMART”: specific, measurable (though some targets should remain fairly general and may require the setting of national/local targets or new metrics), attainable (though some will be “stretch” goals that can be attained only with considerable effort), relevant (to the four dimensions of sustainable development), and time bound to 2030 or earlier. 

  6. Applicable to all stakeholders: The goals should apply to governments at all levels, business, civil society, international organizations, and other stakeholders. 

  7. Integrated: The goals should promote integrated thinking and put to rest the futile debates that pit one dimension of sustainable development against another 

  8. Limited in number: The Sustainable Development Solutions Network believes that ten is the maximum practical number. Beyond ten, the goals would lose the benefit of public understanding and motivation.

As described in this document and illustrated in Annex 2, the world’s challenges are interconnected and must therefore address all four dimensions of sustainable development (economic development and ending poverty, social inclusion, environmental sustainability, and good governance including peace and security). To reflect the need for integration, the proposed ten Sustainable Development Goals and their thirty targets have been designed to address multiple dimensions of sustainable development.

The proposed Sustainable Development Goals in such a way as to stay close to the structure of the Millennium Development Goals. They are not ordered by priority. All are very important and work in harmony with the others.

The Millennium Development Goals are the world’s shared goals for ending extreme poverty in all its forms and will expire at the end of 2015. They have supported tremendous progress, including the reduction by half of the poverty rate of developing countries taken as a group. However, the job of ending extreme poverty in all its forms is far from complete country by country, particularly among disadvantaged groups and regions within countries. For this reason, the Sustainable Development Goals start with a clear commitment to finishing the work of the Millennium Development Goals by resolving under SDG 1 to end extreme poverty and hunger by 2030. The Global Bank Group has committed to the goal of ending extreme poverty by 2030, and to achieve sustainable development in its three dimensions through promoting inclusive economic growth, protecting the environment, and promoting social inclusion. Member states may decide to include suitably updated Millennium Development Goals targets under SDG 1 as measures of extreme poverty in all its forms. Alternatively, the targets on ending extreme poverty may be distributed across the corresponding Sustainable Development Goals.

The Sustainable Development Goals are universal, applying to all nations, rich and poor alike. They have a 15-year time frame, like the Millennium Development Goals, thereby covering the period 2015 to 2030. The Sustainable Development Goals should address all four dimensions of sustainable development (economic, social, environmental, and governance) and set objectives for governments at all levels, as well as for business and civil society. Not every goal will be a “stretch goal” for every country. Rich countries, for instance, will have met goals related to ending extreme poverty. Yet all countries lag behind on some dimensions of sustainable development.

Business deserves special note as a principal engine for economic growth and job creation. The term “business” comprises a great diversity of organizations ranging from small shops to large multinational corporations and financial institutions. Collectively, businesses will develop and deliver many of the new technologies, organizational models, and management systems that are needed for sustainable development. Businesses also directly account for some two-thirds of natural resource use. If businesses embrace the Sustainable Development Goals and are supported by clear government policies and rules that align private incentives with sustainable development, then rapid positive change will become possible.1 If businesses operate under values and incentives that are misaligned with the objectives of sustainable development, then the transformations outlined in this document will be impossible.

Similarly, sustainable development cannot occur without civil society doing its part. The Sustainable Development Goals are a guide and standard for civil society as well, including universities and other expert communities, non- governmental organizations (NGOs), philanthropies and foundations, environmental groups, social enterprises, and others. Each of these civil society actors will have their own distinctive role to play in support of the Sustainable Development Goals.

 
1One example of a values-based business initiative that also includes a development dimension is the United Nations Global Compact

 

The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) adopted the principle of sustainable development goals to be crafted and adopted by United Nations member states before the end of 2015. The proposed goals outlined by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) are one of many inputs into this debate.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are one part of the global policy framework for the period after 2015. Just as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were part of the Millennium Declaration, which goes well beyond the Millennium Development Goals to include issues of war and peace, the Sustainable Development Goals will be one part of the global policy agenda after 2015. The broader agenda including issues of war and peace, ridding the world of nuclear weapons as per the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and addressing major macroeconomic challenges such as reforming the global financial systems to prevent a repeat of the devastating 2008 financial crisis.

 

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) demonstrate the power of global goals, backed by quantitative targets, in building momentum for national and local action. Addressing the challenges of sustainable development requires a shared focus on ending extreme poverty in all its forms and a structural transformation in the way that national and local economies operate. The necessary focus and collaboration across actors and countries can best be achieved through shared global objectives for sustainable development. That is why the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) called for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Of course, setting global goals – even if they are based on shared values – will have little impact unless followed up by concerted action. However, averting the business-as-usual (BAU) trajectory will be nearly impossible without an ambitious and universal set of Sustainable Development Goals.

Well-crafted Sustainable Development Goals guides the public understanding of complex long-term challenges, inspire public and private action, and promote accountability. They builds on existing global initiatives and bring together ongoing efforts in sustainable development. The Sustainable Development Goals is a complementary to the tools of international laws, such as global treaties and conventions, by providing a normative framework for the global partnership needed to address the interconnected challenges the world faces. Children around the world will learn a simplified version of the goals as a clear introduction to sustainable development. For business people, government officials, civil society, and others, the goals will promote integrated thinking and help to stave off the futile debates that often pit one dimension of sustainable development against another. They will mobilize governments and the international system to strengthen measurement and monitoring for sustainable development. 

The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) outcome document refers to three dimensions of sustainable development (economic, social, and environmental) and emphasizes the importance of good governance as well as peace and security, which are sometimes referred to as a foundation of sustainable development. For simplicity we refer to the four societal objectives as dimensions of sustainable development: economic development (including ending extreme poverty), social inclusion, environmental sustainability, and good governance including peace and security.

The proposed goals and targets were prepared by the Leadership Council of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) to help inform the debate around Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including the work of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, which has recently submitted its report to the United Nations Secretary-General, and the Open Working Group on the Sustainable Development Goals established at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). The Leadership Council took into consideration proposals emerging from the thematic and national consultations organized by the United Nations Task Team, other processes, and numerous reports issued by civil society and research organizations. The Leadership Council also benefited enormously from hundreds of comments received during public consultations on the document.

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Civil society is a crucial interlocutor for the G7 Presidencies. It plays an advocacy role, helping mobilize key actors and bringing institutions closer to the grassroots level. Civil society also encourages and monitors the leaders, to ensure that they honor the pledges they have made. Italy has initiated ongoing dialogue with all the representatives of the so-called G7 engagement groups (Business7, Civil7, ThinkThank7, Labor7, Science7, Women7 and Youth7), which will not only submit their policy recommendations to the leaders and institutions in connection with the issues on the G7 agenda, but will also organize their own parallel summits over the course of Italy’s Presidency.

The involvement of the emerging economies, of developing countries and of international organizations has kept pace with, and reflects, a gradual evolution in the issues addressed by the Group of Seven. Initial interest in issues relating solely to financial stability and to macro-economic coordination were soon joined by an interest in other crucial themes ranging from development in Africa and climate change to food safety and the resolution of international crises. It was Italy, in Genoa in 2001, that inaugurated the now traditional “African segment” of the Summit, with dialogue sessions between the G7 leaders and the African countries invited by the Presidency.

In March 2014, the G7 decided that, in view of Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea, meaningful discussions within the context of the G8 are currently not possible. Since then the meetings have continued in the G7 format. 

By taking this decision the G7 emphasised that it is a community of values that cannot accept a breach of international law. That is why the G7 met in Brussels for a summit on 4 and 5 June 2014 instead of taking part in the planned G8 summit in Sochi, Russia.

The first meetings between the European Community and the G7 were held in London in 1977. Since the Ottawa Summit in 1981 the European Commission has regularly attended all the working sessions. The European Union shares all the G7’s values and is itself an important economic factor.

Because the EU, unlike the other members of the G7, is a supranational organisation and not a sovereign state. However, it has the same privileges and obligations. 

The EU is one of the world’s key economic areas. It is also increasingly addressing security policy issues.

Other guests will be invited to the summit of the heads of state and government to discuss specific topics as part of what is known as the expanded dialogue. There is a long tradition of involving third countries and international organisations in G7 summits. The heads of state and government of various African nations are invited to one of the sessions. In a way of example, the G7 in Schloss Elmau has support the African states in their reform efforts. The aim was and still is to contribute to boosting peace, security, growth and sustainable development in Africa.

Before the G7 summits meeting will be held with representatives from business, the scientific community, trade unions, non-governmental organisations and young people from the G7 countries.

A number of working groups comprising experts from the G7 member countries have been set up over the years to follow up on the pledges made by the Heads of State and of Government and to explore the more technical aspects of the debates in greater depth. Under the guiding hand of the Sherpas, Political Directors and Foreign Affairs Sous-Sherpas, the G7 countries’ experts address such specific issues as health, food safety, development, energy, environmental protection, non-proliferation and support for the United Nations’ peacekeeping and peace-consolidating operations.

The G7‘s institutional structure is headed by a “Sherpa,” personal representatives of the Heads of State and of Government of the world’s seven most industrially advanced countries.

The role they play is named after the figures that guide adventurers to Himalayan peaks. Like the mountain climbing porters, the G7 Sherpas do the heavy lifting, overcoming obstacles and safely navigating the chosen paths, thereby defining those positions that will be undersigned at the Summit, on important global issues.

Sherpas are also responsible for the preparatory process preceding the Summit and oversees negotiations regarding the drafting of the Final Communiqué.

Sherpas regularly communicate with each other in connection with their respective leaders’ positions and proposals on international issues, and they are in touch with their leaders directly at all times.

The post of Sherpa is traditionally held by a high-ranking diplomat.

The Sherpas are supported in their role by Foreign Affairs Sous-Sherpas (FASS) and a Political Directors (PD). They are assisted by a representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (the PD) who is responsible for foreign and security policy issues, and by another representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (the FASS) who is generally in charge of such cross-cutting issues as the environment, social and economic aspects, and development.

The Economy and Finance Ministry, on the other hand, handles the economic and financial issues on the Summit’s agenda. Ad hoc working groups can also be set up to address particularly complex, technical issues.

Web conferences are used to exchange facts. They are not conducive to creating the informal, relaxed atmosphere in which ideas are formed and trust is established. The event would take on a completely different character.

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  • 2020    United States
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YearPlaceHost
Year:1975Place:G6 Summit in RambouilletHost:France
Year:1976Place:G7 Summit in San JuanHost:USA
Year:1977Place:G7 Summit in LondonHost:United Kingdom
Year:1978Place:G7 Summit in BonnHost:West Germany
Year:1979Place:G7 Summit in TokyoHost:Japan
Year:1980Place:G7 Summit in VeniceHost:Italy
Year:1981Place:G7 Summit in OttawaHost:Canada
Year:1982Place:G7 Summit in VersaillesHost:France
Year:1983Place:G7 Summit in WilliamsburgHost:USA
Year:1984Place:G7 Summit in LondonHost:United Kingdom
Year:1985Place:G7 Summit in BonnHost:West Germany
Year:1986Place:G7 Summit in TokyoHost:Japan
Year:1987Place:G7 Summit in VeniceHost:Italy
Year:1988Place:G7 Summit in TorontoHost:Canada
Year:1989Place:G7 Summit in ParisHost:France
Year:1990Place:G7 Summit in HoustonHost:USA
Year:1991Place:G7 Summit in LondonHost:United Kingdom
Year:1992Place:G7 Summit in MunichHost:Germany
Year:1993Place:G7 Summit in TokyoHost:Japan
Year:1994Place:G7 Summit in NaplesHost:Italy
Year:1995Place:G7 Summit in HalifaxHost:Canada
Year:1996Place:G7 Summit in LyonsHost:France
Year:1997Place:G7 Summit in DenverHost:USA
Year:1998Place:G8 Summit in BirminghamHost:United Kingdom
Year:1999Place:G8 Summit in CologneHost:Germany
Year:2000Place:G8 Summit in OkinawaHost:Japan
Year:2001Place:G8 Summit in GenoaHost:Italy
Year:2002Place:G8 Summit in KananaskisHost:Canada
Year:2003Place:G8 Summit in Évian-les-BainsHost:France
Year:2004Place:G8 Summit in Sea IslandHost:USA
Year:2005Place:G8 Summit in GleneaglesHost:United Kingdom
Year:2006Place:G8 Summit in Saint PetersburgHost:Russia
Year:2007Place:G8 Summit in HeiligendammHost:Germany
Year:2008Place:G8 Summit in TōyakoHost:Japan
Year:2009Place:G8 Summit in L’AquilaHost:Italy
Year:2010Place:G8 Summit in MuskokaHost:Canada
Year:2011Place:G8 Summit in DeauvilleHost:France
Year:2012Place:G8 Summit in Camp DavidHost:USA
Year:2013Place:G8 Summit in Lough ErneHost:United Kingdom
Year:2014Place:G7 Summit in BrusselsHost:Belgium
Year:2015Place:G7 Summit in BavariaHost:Germany
Year:2016Place:G7 Summit in Shima-shiHost:Japan
Year:2017Place:G7 Summit in SicilyHost:Italy
Year:2018Place:G7 Summit in QuebecHost:Canada

 

The country holding the presidency is responsible for organising the annual summit and for drawing up the summit agenda. The governments’ chief negotiators, known as sherpas, do the preparatory and follow-up work. They establish on which issues agreement can be reached and where there is still need for discussion, and they prepare the final declarations containing the key outcomes of the summit.

The decisions the G7 takes in full view of the world have a huge political impact. Experts refer to this as their binding effect. At home, the heads of state and government are also measured by what they achieve and agree at G7 meetings.

The G7 do not reach decisions by majority vote. The countries have to reach unanimous agreement on their summit declaration. Even if the decisions are not legally binding, their global impact should not be underestimated.

The Presidency is held by each of the member countries in turn, in the following order: France, United States, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Italy and Canada. The European Union attends the G7 but neither chairs nor hosts Summits.

Italy will hold the Presidency from January 1 to December 31, 2017, a role it has played on five previous occasions in the history of the Group of Seven. It will thus be Italy’s responsibility to: propose and identify the Group’s priorities for action and consequently those areas requiring intervention; host and organize the technical and informal meetings that pave the way to the Summit, attended by the relevant Heads of State and of Government, as well as all the Ministerial Meetings; prepare the drafts and final texts of all supporting documents, including the Final Communiqué. The latter, adopted by the leaders at the end of each Summit, summarizes the main global issues debated during the year. While this communiqué is not a binding document in the strictest sense of the term, it is nonetheless of the utmost importance. It enshrines the pledges that the G7 Heads of State and of Government make regarding the political guidelines that they intend to pursue together.

The G7 is a forum for dialogue at the highest level attended by the leaders of the world’s most important industrially advanced democracies. Its chief features are the intergovernmental nature of the preparatory process and its informality, which makes it easier for the leaders to discuss the world’s major issues and to rapidly devise and agree on solutions to them. Given that it is not an international organization, it is devoid of any kind of administrative structure or permanent

The G7 is not an international organisation, but what is known as an unofficial forum. That means that it does not adopt resolutions that have direct legal effect. The G7 has neither its own administrative apparatus with a permanent secretariat nor someone who acts as its members’ permanent representative. That is why the rotating presidency is so important.

Because of the economic problems the countries were faced with in the 1970s: the first oil crisis and the breakdown of the system of fixed currency exchange rates. The first meeting served to exchange ideas on possible solutions. The countries taking part reached agreement on international economic policy and first measures for reversing the ongoing global economic downturn.

The G7 sees itself as a community of values that stands for peace, security and a self-determined life all around the world. Freedom and human rights, democracy and the rule of law, as well as prosperity and sustainable development are key principles of the G7.

The first summit, in 1975, was attended by France, Germany, the US, Britain, Japan and Italy. Known at the time as the G6, it started as a forum for non-Communist powers to address pressing economic concerns, including inflation and recession following an OPEC oil embargo.

Canada was invited to join a year later, creating the G7, which became formalised with annual meetings between the heads of the seven governments.

Representatives of the European Union have been additional participants to summits since 1981.

Russia was first invited as a guest observer in 1997 as a way to encourage then-President Boris Yeltsin's capitalist reforms, and formally joined a year later. However, it was kicked out in 2014 over the annexation of Crimea.

France, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and West Germany formed the Group of Six in 1975 (Canada joined the following year) to provide a venue for the non-Communist powers to address pressing economic concerns, which included inflation and a recession sparked by the OPEC oil embargo. Cold War politics invariably entered the group’s agenda.

The European Union (EU) has participated fully in the G7 since 1981 as a “nonenumerated” member. It is represented by the presidents of the European Council, which comprises the EU member states’ leaders, and the European Commission, the EU’s executive body. There is no formal criteria for membership, but participants are all developed democracies. The aggregate GDP of G7 member states makes up nearly 50 percent of the global economy, down from nearly 70 percent three decades ago.

 

7 GDP as a share of Global GDP

 

Unlike the United Nations or the NATO, the G7 is not a formal institution with a charter and a secretariat. Instead, the presidency, which rotates annually among member states, is responsible for setting the agenda and arranging logistics. Ministers and envoys, known as sherpas, hammer out policy initiatives at meetings that precede the annual summit of national leaders.

The annual G7 Summit of the Heads of State and of Government is usually held in the middle of the year and is the highest-profile event of the entire G7 Presidency. The Summit will be attended not only by the G7 member countries’ leaders, but also by the leaders of select International Organizations, and by the Heads of State and of Government of “outreach” countries and of countries invited as guests of the Presidency.

The event is spread out over two working days and winds up with the submission and adoption of the Final Communiqué. France and the United States are represented by their Heads of State, while the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Italy and Canada are represented by their Heads of Government. The European Union is represented by both the President of the European Commission and the President of the European Council.

The Group of Seven (G7) comprises seven leading industrialised nations: The United States of America, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan, Canada and Germany. In addition, the European Union sends representatives to all the meetings. 

The summits give the heads of state and government the opportunity to discuss their respective positions in personal meetings. A summit declaration containing the key outcomes is issued at the end of each summit meeting, sometimes along with additional reports and action plans. 

Participants discuss issues that are of global importance, including global economic issues and foreign, security and development policy. They also address those issues that require political action and that generate widespread public interest.

The Group of Seven (G7) is an informal grouping of seven of the world’s advanced economies consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The forum offers an opportunity for G7 Leaders, Ministers and policy makers to come together each year to build consensus and set trends around some of today’s most challenging global issues.

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Temporary accreditation, for a maximum period of five days, may be issued for a specific event.  Applications need to be made two weeks in advance.

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A permanent accreditation card, for a maximum period of 12 months, may be issued to journalists who are regularly present, either because they are based in California or in adjacent regions/countries or because they are required to follow the work of Global Bank on a regular basis.

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Media accredited to cover the Global Bank and the Annual and Spring Meetings of Global Bank Board Governors meeting and other Global Bank events will have access to:

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Accredited journalists only are invited to complete our brief registration form to tell us about your interests and the media outlets where your work appears. The site offers advance access to Global Bank information and opportunities to submit questions through online press conferences.  Because the Online Press Briefing Center is intended for journalists only, applications from non-journalists will be rejected.

The Media Relations Division (MRD) in the Corporate and External Affairs Vice Presidency Unit (CEXT) of Global Bank plays a key role in the dissemination of Global Bank information to the local and foreign media organizations through the Global Bank Online Press Briefing Center. Global Bank Press Briefing Center is a one-stop portal managed by Media Relations Division with links to various Global Bank agencies. It enables Global Bank to send press releases including speeches and press statements to the media directly.  These press releases are available for retrieval at the Global Bank Press Briefing Center Website as follows:

http://www.news.global-bank.org/pres-scenter/

The Media Relations Division also facilitates the processing of Press Accreditation Card (PAC) applications, advises foreign media on the setting up of bureaus in Global Bank, and facilitates the organizing of certain Global Bank media events.

The Media Relations Division can be contacted via the Media Relations Contact Form.

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In its dealings with external providers, Global Bank is committed to respecting the fundamental principles regarding public procurement, such as the principles of equal treatment, non-discrimination and transparency. Global Bank considers that, as a general rule, these principles can be best implemented by competition among qualified tenderers and by a selection based both on cost and quality considerations.

For more information about the Global Bank, what we do and how we do it, please go to the Procurement section of our website.

Global Bank's version of the Standard Bidding Document for Goods and its User's guide is based on the Master Bidding Document for the Procurement of Goods and User's Guide prepared by the Multilateral Development Banks and International Financial Institutions.

Global Bank is harmonizing, to the highest possible degree, procurement policy and master bidding documents in a joint effort to enhance economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and fairness in all multilateral development banks (MDBs1) public and private sector projects. The Harmonized Master Documents reflect what is considered “best practices” and are intended to be used as a basis by the participating organizations for issuing a standard procurement document for each individual institution. In preparing the institutional own standard procurement documents, the Harmonized Master Documents are expected to be followed, insofar as possible, while allowing for institutional and member country considerations.

1The multilateral development bank are African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, Black Sea Trade and Development Bank, Caribbean Development Bank, Council of Europe Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Investment Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank, and the World Bank.

The Global Bank maintains the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) website. The website presents basic information on all investment grants projects financed by the DRRRF and provides easy access to results reporting for each of the projects. The DRRRF website provides access to all core project documents, including the Project Paper and Implementation Status and Results reports, which is the Global Bank’s mechanism for results reporting.

All the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) financial statements, quarterly reports to donors, as well as the Annual report are regularly posted in the Donors Center section of the DRRRF website. You can access DRRRF key documents and reports through the Library Section of the DRRRF website.

Donors and other parties that require more information on the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”)  and on Global Bank grants and investments instruments can contact Global Bank directly by sending an email to GB DRRRF Secretariat via our Secretariat Contact Form.

Donors can contact the Global Bank, the Administrator for the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), to indicate your intention to make donations. The main point of contact is ____________, DRRRF CEO, based in Newport Coast (GBDRRRF Secretariat Contact Form).

The Global Bank expects borrowing countries and companies to observe the highest standards of ethics during the procurement process.  Companies can report allegations of fraud and corruption to an Anti-Corruption Hotline (toll free: 1-800-000-0xxx).   If the Global Bank deems that a company has engaged in fraudulent or corrupt practice, it may debar the company from competing for future Global Bank-financed contracts. A list of debarred firms is maintained on the Global Bank’s website.


The DRRRF Gender Working Group was established as a sub-group to the DRRRF Strategy Group to shape the objectives and operational pillars of the individual post-disaster recovery and reconstruction projects gender strategy. The Gender Working Group is supported by the Global Bank’s gender team in the country offices.

The DRRRF Gender Working Group will: (i) review gender aspects of DRRRF-financed activities; (ii) share knowledge and expertise on innovations in gender as they relate to the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”); (iii) propose recommendations on how gender aspects can be better captured in the DRRRF Results Management Framework; and (iv) provide support for gender mainstreaming in DRRRF portfolio management, pipeline development and new initiatives. Interested parties will be invited to participate in project review and decision meetings to provide input on gender-related aspects where relevant, with the approval of the DRRRF Management Committee.

For the background details of the DRRRF Gender Working Group are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Global Bank plays three roles: (1) Manager (to carry out fiduciary responsibilities as set out in the Global Bank DRRRF Administration Agreement), (2) The DRRRF Secretariat (a small team to support the DRRRF Steering Committee and DRRRF Technical Advisory Committee and facilitate communications between the DRRRF Steering Committee and the other partners of DRRRF), and (3) Supervising Entity of DRRRF funded and granted projects. The Global Finance and Investment Corporation (GFIC), the Global Bank Group’s private sector arm, manages the Sustainable Private Sector Disaster Risk Management Window of the DRRRF. Additionally, Global Bank's Development Impact Evaluation Initiative (DIME) has been selected by the DRRRF Steering Committee to implement in-depth impact evaluations for selected DRRRF Sustainable Public Sector Disaster Reduction and Recovery Window projects.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and How we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

An independent DRRRF Technical Committee (TAC) has been appointed by the DRRRF Steering Committee to provide the due diligence screening of submitted proposals as input for decisions to be made by the DRRRF Steering Committee.

The DRRRF Technical Advisory Committee is comprised of members with a high level of experience and technical expertise in helping countries integrate disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change adaptation into development strategies, establish policies and grant investment programs, including post-disaster recovery and reconstruction through the increased implementation of priority housing reconstruction and climate-smart infrastructure projects including the reviewing of Proposals submitted for financing by the requesting countries or entities from the of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”).

The DRRRF Technical Advisory Committee’s role is to provide recommendations to the DRRRF Steering Committee on a set of indicative allocations of financial support through a technical review of the submitted proposals.

For the background details of the DRRRF Technical Committee are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Management Committee (the "DRRRF Management Committee”) is responsible for overseeing the operations of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”). It also reviews the DRRRF finances and makes recommendations to the DRRRF Secretariat on the management of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The DRRRF Steering Committee (the “DRRRF Steering Committee”) has been established to oversee the overall activities of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”). The DRRRF Steering Committee sets the strategy for the DRRRF, which the DRRRF Management Committee is responsible for implementing. Decisions of the DRRRF Steering Committee are made on a consensus basis and informed by the working groups.

For the Background details of the DRRRF Steering Committee are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The governance and organizational structure of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) includes an Administrator, a DRRRF Board of Directors, a Steering Committee, a Management Committee, a Technical Advisory Board, a Grants Committee, a DRRRF Secretariat and a Trustee, plus three working groups. This sound framework will enable the DRRRF to adapt to changing circumstances and development priorities, with consistency and consensus.

Background details of board members, advisers, technical advisers, experts or persons of similar status to these committees that are participating in the Governance and Oversight of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund are provided in the Management and Organization Section of the Section of the DRRRF Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Covering all countries of Global Bank’s operations, the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility is expected to provide preparation and policy dialogue support for public sector lending structures, frequently on a sub-sovereign, corporate finance in the following sectors and subsectors:                                    

  • Energy: electricity generation; electricity transmission or distribution; natural gas transmission or distribution;

  • Information and communication: telecommunications networks, mobile and wireless network, broadband cable networks, data centers, last-mile internet connectivity;

  • Water and sanitation: water supply; wastewater and sewerage; irrigation and drainage; solid waste management;

  • Transportation: airports; ports; railways; mass transit; highways;

  • Urban Infrastructure: such as urban transport sector and related infrastructure including street rehabilitation, a concession for local road maintenance, as well as support for the preparation of a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (“SUMP”).

  • Environment Management Projects: Clean Heating Project, Hydropower Rehabilitation Project, Scaling Up Rural Sanitation and Water Supply Program, Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Program

The Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window will focus on building strong national and regional and subregional economic integration objectives and policy dialogue-driven replicability of project structures based on commercialisation, corporatisation and institutional strengthening. It will also ensure that projects are well structured and bankable, responding to these needs identified by both the Global Bank and the international consensus on infrastructure. Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window is expected to prepare approximately 15-20 projects per year when operating at full capacity.


The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) will feature three windows: 1) a Sustainable Public Sector Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Window (for public sector projects); 2) a ‘Sustainable DRM Window’ (the DRR Window) which is published separately on the DRRRF’s website at www.gbDRRRF.org; and  3) the Crisis Response Window

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Project preparation typically costs between 5%–10% of the project’s capital cost, and can be financed via grants, risk capital, and loans.

Project preparation costs in developing countries typically range between 5%–10% of the total project investment. The project preparation cost depends on the project’s size and complexity whether several regional governments are involved, how prolonged the preparation process becomes, and the extent to which upstream preparation is complete. Clearly, the more efficient project preparation is, the greater the leveraging effect of a dollar spent in project preparation on infrastructure delivered to the benefit of end users.

Indicators suggest that although the pipeline is strengthening, it falls well short of projected needs.

There are no concrete figures to accurately and exhaustively quantify the magnitude of projects in development. Only a few countries publish data on projects in the prelaunch or investigatory stages. These tend to be countries with well-established track records of public–private partnerships (PPPs) in infrastructure, such as Canada, the UK, and Australia. Otherwise, publicly available data sources are usually either retrospective, cataloguing historical public or private participation in infrastructure, or quantify the future need for infrastructure expenditure in aggregate terms or by sector.

The available data highlight the significant gap between historical expenditures (government and private sector combined) and future needs: worldwide expenditures on infrastructure need to more than double by 2020. Most indicators suggest that a step-function increase in expenditure of this magnitude is unlikely to generate the desired results. Where noticeable increases in infrastructure expenditure are evident in the pipeline, the increase over historical expenditure is in the 20%–40% range. A closer look at the cases of Africa, Brazil, India, and Indonesia follows.

 

Lack of financing is not exclusively, or even mainly, the issue.

The global financial crisis of 2008 has reduced bank debt available to finance infrastructure projects, as well as increased pricing, stricter lending covenants, and shorter tenors. In particular, several large European banks have deleveraged and retreated from markets in which they once played important roles.

Simultaneously, however, non-bank lending for infrastructure is taking on a new momentum.1 Infrastructure, sovereign wealth, and pension funds are looking for asset classes with steady, inflation-adjusted income streams, and development banks are working to expand the number of vehicles available to access infrastructure.

A critical obstacle slowing the flow of private capital to infrastructure is the lack of properly structured, bankable projects.2 Properly analyzed (with detailed demand, engineering, and costing analysis) and well-structured projects are able to find financing.3 This does not imply that these projects are immune to uncertainty and risk. However, inherent uncertainties are clearly identified for investors to make calculated assumptions on the probabilities of expected outcomes, translate uncertainty into risk, and factor this into an expected return.

In practice, many projects do not have an adequate fact base built during preliminary work and potential investors face ambiguity (rather than uncertainty), which cannot be quantified and translated into a risk–return tradeoff. Frequently, infrastructure projects do not attract funding because they lack the adequate level of study necessary to establish their bankability, and projects that are not deemed bankable fail to attract more than cursory investor attention.

In short, funding challenges are real and significant. However, funding sources and mechanisms are largely responsive to the depth and quality of the project pipeline, rather than the key determinants of it. The remainder of this paper will focus on this critical issue of the challenge.

1InfraNews (2013). “How the Infrastructure Debt Market is Evolving to Accommodate a Growing Institutional Appetite.”
2World Bank (2013). Issues Note (No. 6) for Consideration by G20: “Long-Term Financing of Infrastructure: A Look at Non-financial Constraints.”
3Latin Finance (2010). “Infrastructure Investment: The Big Shortfall.”

 

Insufficient focus on planning and preparation are significant impediments.

The infrastructure project pipeline is lacking in both quantity and quality. In simple terms, the demand for infrastructure is not being translated into projects (quantity); for projects that are originated, either the fundamentals drive too high a risk premium or insufficient preparation is conducted for them to be considered bankable (quality). Exacerbating this further, projects take too long to prepare.

The Global Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 trillion per annum to 2020 is required by developing countries to keep pace with consumer and producer demand for infrastructure. To keep pace with projected global GDP growth, the infrastructure financing gap increases to an estimated US$57 trillion over the period to 2030 (MDB Working Group on Infrastructure, 2011). Alternatively, the World Economic Forum estimates that close to US$2 trillion per annum will be required to meet the infrastructure needs of developing economies by 2030 (WEF, 2012).

By consensus estimates from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to the Boston Consulting Group and the World Bank Group, the estimated annual global infrastructure investment need is about US$3.7 trillion – of which only about $2.7 trillion is currently met on an annual basis. The figure does not include ‘development goals’ and emerging market economies (EMEs) would need an additional US$1 trillion per year until 2020 just to keep pace with the demands of urbanisation, growth, climate change and global integration.

This much-discussed “infrastructure gap” is large and it is widening. Even if fiscal conditions in developed and emerging economies improve, the need introduced by the infrastructure financing gap is unlikely to be met from public sources alone. This generates an expectation that private capital and user charges must be mobilized to fill these gaps.

Infrastructure is key to tackling poverty and promoting inclusive growth. Infrastructure helps improve access to basic services, especially for poor people, links producers to markets and connects countries to the opportunities in the global economy. Well-functioning infrastructure is essential to overcome bottlenecks to growth in emerging and developing economies, and as an enabler of private sector led growth. No country has developed without access to well-functioning infrastructure. At a time when the outlook for global growth is disappointing, investment in infrastructure can play an important role in boosting short-term demand, as well as bolstering longer-term supply capacity.


Yes. Global Bank values transparency and is committed to increased access to information under the public communications policy (PCP). An essential part of our institutional governance, the public communications policy promotes proactive external relations and recognizes the right of people to seek, access, and impart information about our operations.

Global Bank's commitment to Open Bank Strategy1 is part of the Bank's efforts to foster greater openness and accountability, to provide domestic and international firms and citizens with more opportunities to learn about Global Bank and participate in international development, to drive innovation and economic opportunities for all, and at the same time create a more cost effective, efficient and responsive organization.

The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Today’s amazing mix of cloud computing, ever-smarter mobile devices, and collaboration tools is changing the consumer landscape and bleeding into Global Bank Group as both an opportunity and a challenge. Global Bank Group will deliver and receive digital information and services anytime, anywhere and on any device safely and securely.

Global Bank Group Action Plan on Open Bank Strategy sets out our commitments for the Open Bank Partnership, which we will achieve over a three-year period through the effective and prudent use of resources. It is structured along the four streams of our Open Bank Strategy: Open Information2, Open Data3, open Knowledge4, and Open Dialogue5.

The Global Bank Group portal, www.Global-Bank.org, is expected to be fully operational by September 2016. The portal initially will cover 35 subjects in climate resilient infrastructure, climate finance and economic and human development data on more than 50 countries by 2021. The portal is expected to attract a broad range of users, including policymakers, development practitioners, infrastructure and infrastructure finance practitioners (public, private, and nongovernment sectors), trade associations, researchers, students, and journalists. The Web Site will be updated frequently, and will feature blogs and discussion forums.

 
1The Open Bank Strategy is a strategy adopted by the Global Bank to demonstrate the Organization’s commitment to making it a more open, transparent and accountable entity. Through it, Global Bank information and knowledge will be publicly available through numerous accompanying initiatives such as Open Data, Open knowledge Repository and Open Finances, to name a few.
2The Global Bank's Open Information initiative is intended to provide all interested parties and stakeholders with openness and transparency in development, from tools and knowledge resources to Bank-wide initiatives.
3The Global Bank collects and processes large amounts of data and generates them on the basis of economic models. These data and models gradually will be made available to the public in a way that encourages reuse, whereas the recent publications describing them are available as open access under a Creative Commons Attribution License. The Global Bank's Open Data initiative is intended to provide all users with access to Global Bank data about development in countries around the globe.
4The Global Bank will hosts the Open Knowledge Repository (OKR) as an official open access repository for its research outputs and knowledge products.
5The success of Global Bank works depends on the ability of all affected parties to freely express their concerns. The Global Bank Group has adopted high standards of stakeholder engagement—to ensure that our clients achieve the best possible development outcomes. All our country strategies and projects are based on dialogue with stakeholders, including civil society.

 

We believe that sharing information is essential for sustainable development, so we seek out opportunities to talk about our work with the widest possible audience. Access to information stimulates public debate, broadens understanding of development issues, and enhances transparency and accountability in the development process. It also strengthens public support for development efforts, resulting in improvements in the quality of our assistance. Therefore, it is our policy to be open about our activities. To that end, we&;ve expanded the information that we make available to the public and have streamlined access to it. Project Documents, including environmental and social assessments, are available throughout the Project Cycle, as well as our operations results, research and reviews. Approval is often withheld for projects, when project documents are not posted according to disclosure requirements. In addition, information is disseminated globally through the Public Information Centers (PIC). Public Information Centers staff members develop proactive outreach programs within their countries.Global Bank Group’s Public Information Centers disseminate development-related information and documentation on Global Bank Group operations and research to the public. The goal is to encourage dialogue, to enable people to make informed decisions on matters that affect their livelihood, and to encourage them to participate in their country’s development. These centers facilitate the production of documents in local languages, and they develop and maintain Web sites in local languages. Through public lectures, seminars, workshops, and Web casts, Global Bank Group and partner institutions worldwide make information on economic and social development widely available. Public Information Centers operate in capital cities and satellite centers. By the year 2025 centers will be located in every country in which the Global Bank Group operates.

In order to earn trust, credibility and legitimacy in the eyes of its stakeholders, the Executive Board of Global Bank Group has adopted an open and transparent selection process for the selection of its senior leadership that results in the most competent person being appointed regardless of their nationality.In 2014, the Global Bank Group introduced a policy implementing transparent and merit-based assessment in the selection of all Global Bank Group agency heads and other office holders working in, or in conjunction with, Global Bank Group agencies.The Global Bank Group sets out a number of factors that must be considered in determining merit. These include the applicant&;s education, skills, knowledge, experience, past work performance and years of continuous service in the public service.The Global Bank Group distinguishes between permanent and longer-term temporary appointments and those that are seasonal or short-term temporary appointments. Specifically, permanent appointments and temporary appointments exceeding seven months are to be the result of a process designed to appraise the knowledge, skills and abilities of eligible applicants. Employees with permanent and longer-term appointments form part of the core career professional on which Global Bank Group relies for advice and expertise. It makes sense that the Global Bank Group sets a more rigorous standard for making these types of appointments. These appointments may require recruitment to attract applicants. Individuals are assessed for merit against the selection criteria required for the job. A competitive process allows applicants to be rated and ranked relative to one another, so that those who are successful are the best-qualified candidates.Auxiliary, seasonal appointments or those for temporary periods of seven months or less still need to be based on a consideration of individual merit, but they do not require a competitive process.The recruitment and selection processes that result in merit-based appointments include these essential elements: a process used to recruit, select and assess that is transparent and fair; an assessment that is relevant to the job; and decisions that are reasonable. Merit-based hiring takes into consideration both legislation and hiring policy. Where applicable, requirements of collective agreements are also considered. These elements support a results-based approach to staffing and are considered as part of the audit and review of appointment decisions undertaken by the Office of the Merit Commissioner.

Mr. Ron Nechemia, an American national, is the 1st President of the Global Bank Group. He was selected by the Board of the Executive Directors for a five-year renewable term.Mr. Nechemia Serves as the Chairman of the Board of Governors and President of the Global Bank Group. He is chairman of the Bank’s Board of Executive Directors and president of a group of five interrelated organizations:

  • The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIDR);
  • The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GFIDR); 
  • The Global Finance Corporation (GFC); 
  • The GFC Asset Management Company (AMC); and 
  • The Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency (GBIGA)

The Executive Vice Presidents of The Global Finance Corporation and The Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency report to the President of the Global Bank GroupFor the 2013 selection, the Executive Board adopted a procedure that allowed the selection of all senior management including the President and the Managing Director in an open, merit-based, and transparent manner that results in the most competent person being appointed regardless of their nationality.

The Global Bank is not a bank in the traditional sense, but rather a specialized agency. While the Global Bank lends and manages some of its funds much like a commercial bank,it is different in several important ways. First,the Global Bank lends to developing countries at lower rates than traditional markets would give to borrowing governments. Loans are used to support social and economic development projects in middle-and low-income countries. Unlike a commercial bank, Global Bank’s financial objective is not to maximize profit but to earn adequate income to ensure its financial strength and to sustain its development activities. Repayment periods on Global Bank loans are generally longer than commercial banks.The financial support and advice that the Global Bank provides largely toits members and non-members countries is designed to help them fight poverty.Commercial banks manage deposit accounts, such as checking and savings accounts, for individuals and businesses. They make loans to the public using the money held on deposit.

Global Bank consists of both a hard-loan-window and a soft-loan-window. The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction is the-hard-loan-window provide loans at market-based rates to lower and middle-income developing countries governments. The soft-loan-window is The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction1 (the “GFIDR”) provide loans on a concessional basis to countries unable to borrow international capital markets— together are commonly known as the “Global Bank.”
 
The Global Bank provides low-interest loans, interest-free credits, and grants to developing countries. There’s always a government (or “sovereign”) guarantee of repayment subject to general conditions. The Global Bank is directed to make loans for projects. These loans must have a reasonable likelihood of being repaid. The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction was created to offer an alternative loan option. The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction loans are free of interest and offered with grace period before the country receiving the loan needs to begin repayment. These loans are often called soft loans.
 
Countries usually graduate out of The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction to The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction and eventually completely out of Global Bank. 
 
1Eligible Global Bank members and non-members may receive support from BIDR, the Global Fundorboth.Currently,85 countries are eligible for BIDR lending, 77 countries are eligible for Global Fund financing, and 18 countries are eligible for a blend of BIDR and the Global Fund financing (BIDR2014;Global Fund2015). The current operational cut off for the Global Fund eligibility is a per capita defined as GNI per capita below an established threshold of $1,215 in fiscal year 2015 (with an exception for small island states). That said, there is no automatic graduation rule linked to per-capita income — the operational cut off is only a trigger for initiating broader discussions about continuing Global Fund eligibility.

The Global Bank Group has set two goals for the world to achieve by 2030:

  • End extreme poverty by decreasing the percentage of people living on less than $1.25 a day to no more than 3%
  • Promote shared prosperity by fostering the income growth of the bottom 40% for every country

Global Bank Group in partnership with member and non-governments, independent specialists and other financial institutions is focused on delivering projects that create economic and development impact.The Global Bank Group&;s activities are focused on developing countries, in fields such as human development (e.g. education, health), agriculture and rural development (e.g. irrigation and rural services), environmental protection (e.g. pollution reduction, establishing and enforcing regulations), infrastructure (e.g. roads, urban regeneration, and electricity), large industrial construction projects, and governance (e.g. anti-corruption, institutions development). Some of our projects are co-financed with governments, other multilateral institutions, commercial banks, export credit agencies, and private sector investors. GBG will also provide or facilitate financing through trust fund partnerships with bilateral and multilateral donors.

The Global Bank is a full-fledged private sector global development bank in formation - the world’s second global development bank - positioned next to the World Bank and the preeminent regional development banks (MDBs1). The Global Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. Global Bank provides financial and technical support to developing countries to help them strengthen economic management and reduce poverty. Global Bank provide a new channel through which developing country governments could borrow to finance economically productive climate resilient infrastructure assets and sustainable development while still remaining within prudent levels of debt.

We also provide direct assistance to private enterprises of developing countries through equity investments and loans.

For more information about the Global Bank, what we do and how we do it, please go to the About Us section of our website.

 
1The Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) are institutions that provide financial support and professional advice for economic and social development activities in developing countries. The MDBs provide financial and technical support to developing countries to help them strengthen economic management and reduce poverty. Together, the MDBs provide support to the world's poorest in every corner of the globe, strengthening institutions, rebuilding states, addressing the effects of climate change, and fostering economic growth and entrepreneurship.

Our headquarters is located in Newport Coast, California, USA.

The current primary focus of the Global Bank Group centers on six strategic themes: 

  • The poorest countries. Poverty reduction and sustainable growth in the poorest countries, especially in Africa.
  • Postconflict and fragile states. Solutions to the special challenges of postconflict countries and fragile states.
  • Middle-income countries. Development solutions with customized services as well as financing for middle-income countries.
  • Global public goods. Addressing regional and global issues that cross national borders, such as climate change, and trade.
  • The Arab world. Greater development and opportunity in the Arab world.
  • Knowledge and learning. Leveraging the best global knowledge to support development.

The mission of Global Bank Group (*the “Bank Group”) is to support the economic and social development efforts of the less developed countries as they seek achievement of internationally agreed upon development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration, and to implement the recommendations of major United Nations conferences and summits. The goals lay out a blueprint for Global Bank, setting its priorities and measuring its results. GlobalBank Group’s strategic priorities are aligned to advance the United Nations’ global priorities.

The Global Bank Group (GBG or the Bank Group) is composed of five separate institutions with a common mission and distinct mandates towards its fulfillment: The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIDR); The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GFIDR); the Global Finance Corporation (GFC); the GFC Asset Management Company (AMC); and the Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency (GBIGA). Each agency is owned and operated by the Global Bank Group.The Global Bank Group's activities are focused on developing countries, in fields such as human development (e.g. education, health), agriculture and rural development (e.g. irrigation and rural services), environmental protection (e.g. pollution reduction, establishing and enforcing regulations), infrastructure (e.g. roads, urban regeneration, and electricity), large industrial construction projects, and governance (e.g. anti-corruption, institutions development).

Development projects undertaken with Global Bank financing typically include money to pay for materials and consulting services. Global Bank, like the multilateral development banks (MDBs)1, provides business opportunities for business and other companies by funding projects in developing countries in a wide range of sectors. According to some estimates, multilateral development banks lending and grants between 2011 and 2015 could exceed $500 billion. These contracts are awarded primarily through international competitive bidding processes. However, Global Bank allows the borrowing country to give some preference to domestic firms in awarding contracts for Global Bank-financed projects in order to help spur development; and increasingly, more contracts are being awarded domestically, on a noncompetitive basis.  1The term "multilateral development banks" includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association, International Finance Corporation, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, African Development Bank, African Development Fund, Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, Bank for Economic Cooperation and Development in the Middle East and North Africa and Inter-American Investment Corporation.

Global Bank Group’s aims to work with its borrowing developing countries so that they can achieve equitable and sustainable economic growth in their national economies and find effective solutions to pressing regional and global problems in economic development and environmental sustainability, all with a view to overcoming poverty and improving standards of living. It pursues this goal primarily by providing financing, risk management products and other financial services, access to experts and a pool of knowledge in development-related disciplines so that borrowing countries can pool, administer and prioritize resources they dedicate to development-related objectives.

The term "Global Bank" refers only to the Bank for International Development and Reconstruction and the Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (Global Fund). The term "Global Bank Group" incorporates five closely associated entities that work collaboratively toward poverty reduction: Global Finance Corporate (GFC),To learn more about each institution&;s role, visit the

Strengthening the results orientation of the Global Bank Group has been a key priority to ensure that loans and donors contributions are generating positive and lasting results on the ground. For example, Global Bank Group has created special structure in Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility to assess results and is now working to ensure that lessons from projects are incorporated into new projects and programmes.Results are measured and managed at several levels, including by tracking outcomes at the project level and linking disbursements to the achievement of specific targets. In addition, the Global Bank will report on results through the following three publicly available forms; 1) an annual report known as the “Corporate Scorecard”; 2) an annual report prepared by an Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) housed at the Global Bank Group; and 3) a management action record, which tracks the adoption of the Independent Evaluation Bank Group’s recommendations. These transparent assessments of performance ensure that loan and donor’s dollars are being invested wisely, and will lead to long-term improvements in development results.

Our Anticorruption Policy requires all staff and parties carrying out activities financed by Global Bank Group (e.g., bidders, consulting firms, consultants, contractors, and suppliers) to adhere to the highest financial and ethical standards. The Office of Anticorruption and Integrity (OAI) conducts investigations and audits related to project procurement, and raises awareness on anticorruption issues.Contact the Office of Anticorruption and Integrity to report concerns or evidence that corruption, fraud, coercion, collusion, abuse, conflict of interest, or obstructive practice may have occurred or is occurring related to any Global Bank Group-financed activity.

The Global Bank Group has set two goals for the world to achieve by 2030:

  • End extreme poverty by decreasing the percentage of people living on less than $1.25 a day to no more than 3%
  • Promote shared prosperity by fostering the income growth of the bottom 40% for every country

Global Bank Group in partnership with member and non-governments, independent specialists and other financial institutions is focused on delivering projects that create economic and development impact.The Global Bank Group's activities are focused on developing countries, in fields such as human development (e.g. education, health), agriculture and rural development (e.g. irrigation and rural services), environmental protection (e.g. pollution reduction, establishing and enforcing regulations), infrastructure (e.g. roads, urban regeneration, and electricity), large industrial construction projects, and governance (e.g. anti-corruption, institutions development). Some of our projects are cofinanced with governments, other multilateral institutions, commercial banks, export credit agencies, and private sector investors.We also provide or facilitate financing through trust fund partnerships with bilateral and multilateral donors.

Mr. Ron Nechemia is a founding member of the Global Bank Group and its various affiliate development financial institutions and the founding father of private sector development banking.

The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIDR)The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIDR) offers loans, guarantees and analytical and advisory services to middle-income countries and creditworthy poorer countries in Latin America, Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. It provides its clients with access to capital on favourable terms in larger volumes, with longer maturities and in a more sustainable manner than the market. BIDR raises most of its funding by selling bonds on the international capital markets. The surplus generated from BIDR lending is to a large extent used to extend grants and loans on very favourable terms to low-income countries through The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction. The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GFIDR)The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction provides grants and loans with very long maturity period and no interest to the poorest countries to help cover the cost of lifting people out of poverty, including the cost of providing essential services in education, health water and sanitation.The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction credits are granted to developing countries with a GDP per capita of less than $1,135, and which do not – or only to a limited extend – have access to commercial lending and The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction loans.

The Global Bank Group combines the characteristics of a multilateral development bank  with those of a private financial institution.

Global Bank’s decision-making structure consists of the Board of Governors, the Board of Executive Directors and the President and staff. The Board of Governors is the highest decision-making authority. Members of the Board Governors are appointed by the shareholders of Global Bank for five-year terms, which are renewable. The Board of Governors may delegate authority to the Board of Executive Directors to exercise any of its powers, with the exception of certain powers enumerated in Global Bank’s Articles.In accordance with its Articles, members of the Board of Executive Directors are appointed or elected every two years. The Board is composed of 22 Executive Directors. These Executive Directors are neither officers nor staff of Global bank. The President of Global Bank, Ron Nechemia, is the only member of the Board of Executive Directors from management, serving as a non-voting member and as Chairman of the Board.

The term “Global Bank” refers to The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIDR) and The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GFIDR).  The Global Bank Group refers to the BIDR and GFIDR, as well as the Global Finance Corporation (GFC), the GFC Asset Management Company (AMC); and the Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency (GBIGA).The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIRD)/Global Bank: Lends to governments of middle-income and creditworthy low-income countries.The Global Development Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GDFIDR): provides interest-free loans-called credits-and grants to governments of the poorest countries.Global Finance Corporation (GFC): focuses exclusively on the private sector, helping developing countries achieve sustainable growth.The Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency (GBIGA) provides noncommercial guarantees (insurance) for foreign direct investment in developing countries. It addresses concerns about investment environments and perceptions of risk, which often inhibit investment, by providing political risk insurance.GFC Asset Management Company (AMC) mobilizes and manages third-party funds for investment in emerging markets. It manages funds on behalf of a wide variety of institutional investors, including sovereign funds, pension funds, and development finance institutions. 

The Contact page can provide you with this information.

You can also find Global Bank Group experts on the Who’s Who page in the section. Since only a portion of the knowledge and expertise of the Global Bank Group's staff is found on these pages, please contact us via our to locate an expert on a subject that is not specifically listed.

Four aspects are critical to the Global Bank Group’s approach to infrastructure in Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan:

  1. Address the core access agenda in the following infrastructure sectors: transport, energy, water, and Information and Communication Technologies for development;
     
  2. Maximize effectiveness through a focused approach to complex cross-sectoral issues such as the role of infrastructure in climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts, the role of public–private partnership (PPP) in the provision of infrastructure services, and new ways to provide infrastructure support for rural-urban integration and development;
     
  3. Focus on social and environmental objectives in addition to the economic/financial viability, and ensure access to affordable infrastructure services through a platform of strong governance; and
     
  4. Leverage Global Bank Group financing through:
  • Support to governments to create a market environment supportive of private investment;
  • Direct support for private financing of infrastructure;
  • Increased advocacy to ramp up harmonized donor financing; and
  • Systematic use of financial products that address the financial risks faced by clients and reduce the overall project costs
 

The scale and reach of Global Bank Group supports to developing countries allows them to trial non-traditional forms of development assistance, which, if successful, can be integrated into the wider suite of programs. We focus on three models of assistance that, while being relatively mature in the developed world, are emerging as important mechanisms for promoting greater private sector involvement in infrastructure in developing countries: private equity funds, public-private partnerships, and output-based aid.

Private equity funds

By investing in a private equity fund, rather than in projects directly, Global Bank Group can promote greater reputational credibility, development credentials and good governance, whilst drawing on the deal-making capabilities of the private sector. With these benefits, Global Bank Group argues they can ‘catalyse’ or ‘mobilise’ greater private sector involvement in financing infrastructure in developing countries.

Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs)

Public-private partnerships are long-term relationships between private contractors and the government to provide for the construction, operation and maintenance of infrastructure assets (English, 2006). The OECD (2011) identifies the key features distinguishing a public-private partnerships approach as including: a focus on purchasing services rather than assets; clear specification of outputs; appropriate risk of asset performance being borne by the private party; and assessments of value for money.

Output-based Aid

Output-Based Aid (OBA) is an approach designed to increase access to and delivery of basic services (outputs) to people living in poverty using performance-based incentives, rewards, or subsidies. Output-Based Aid links the payment of aid to the delivery of specific services. Under an Output-Based Aid scheme, service delivery is contracted out to a third party, which receives a payment from Global Bank to either complement or replace user charging. The third party is responsible for ‘pre-financing’ the projects until services are delivered. The subsidy is performance-based, meaning that most of the subsidy is paid only after the services have been delivered and independently verified. By focusing on service outputs, Output-Based Aid represents a change from traditional methods of aid that focus on inputs to service providers.

The Global Bank’s Output-Based Aid program attempts to improve the delivery of basic infrastructure and social services to the poor by integrating the Output-Based Aid approach across financing operations.

 

Global Bank Group is evaluating how their activities impact on infrastructure development in developing countries and considering ways to expand their involvement. Global Bank led the preparation of a paper on the role of Global Bank Group in support of long-term financing. Infrastructure development often requires long-term financing given the high construction costs and long asset lives of facilities like road, ports and power stations.

Chelsky and Morel considered the ‘additionality’ provided by development banks to long-term financing. This included whether a project would have gone ahead without official-sector involvement which, if so, would represent a waste of development banks resources. This concept of ‘additionality’ is also referred to as ‘catalysing’, ‘mobilising’ or ‘crowding in’6 new resources. The extent of additionality development banks provide for infrastructure financing cannot easily be proven (or indeed disproven, such as when an investor says s/he would not have invested if not for the presence of an development banks).

Global Bank Group identifies a variety of ways in which Global Bank Group contribute to long-term investment, which we have grouped into four basic categories, as follows.

  • Direct financial assistance from Global Bank Group
     
  • Indirect financial assistance –Global Bank Group as catalyst
     
  • Non-finanicial Global Bank Group project assistance
     
  • Global Bank Group improving the investment climate

The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 trillion per annum to 2020 is required by developing countries to keep pace with consumer and producer demand for infrastructure. To keep pace with projected global GDP growth, the infrastructure financing gap increases to an estimated US$57 trillion over the period to 2030 (MDB Working Group on Infrastructure, 2011). Alternatively, the World Economic Forum (WEF ) estimates that close to US$2 trillion per annum will be required to meet the infrastructure needs of developing economies by 2030 (WEF, 2012).

For the Asia-Pacific, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) estimates that $750 billion in financing each year will be required by 2020 to meet the region’s infrastructure needs (ADB, 2011).

Global Bank Group needs to improve its agility in responding to client and stakeholder demands at several levels, including:

  1. Increase  joint work, such as joint Global Bank- Global Finance Corporation sub-national transactions and Global Bank- Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency -Global Finance Corporation collaboration on large and complex infrastructure projects, particularly energy sector projects in Africa; joint advisory services and upstream Analytical and Advisory Activities; and develop rules of joint engagement for common Global Bank Group product lines;
     
  2. Reduce the non-financial costs of doing business in high priority sectors, including hydropower;
     
  3. Improve results monitoring and evaluation of the sustainable infrastructure interventions;
     
  4. Increase the utilization of the Global Bank Group financial expertise and access to multiple financial resources for transactions packaging for high priority objectives, such as the mitigation of sovereign and natural catastrophic risks; and
     
  5. Maximize the benefits from the Sustainable Development Network Vice-presidency integration, including through training and recruitment.
  1. There has to be progress in supporting developing countries as they meet the enormous lags in the access agenda of core infrastructure sectors (transport, water, energy, and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)). Advances in this core access agenda requires focused attention on key cross-cutting issues: climate change, the role of the private sector, regional disparities in infrastructure service delivery, rapidly growing demand for infrastructure in urbanizing economies, affordability, and the need to support and build upon technological advances;
     
  2. There is a need to embed sustainability in infrastructure services going beyond “do-no-harm” objectives. In addition to the traditional economic and financial viability of infrastructure services, the design of infrastructure programs needs to support environmental sustainability and social inclusion: the “triple bottom line;”
     
  3. It is paramount to ensure support for a strong governance framework for infrastructure services: efficient and effective use of public and private resources, strong results monitoring systems to measure the access and sustainability outcomes of infrastructure spending, and effective anti-corruption action programs;
     
  4. The Global Bank Group can leverage its financing by mobilizing additional private financing and harmonized aid resources for infrastructure, using its platform to support developing countries. 

Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan has been prepared as an umbrella framework that brings together the lessons of the multilateral development bank’s (MDB) infrastructure experience from the past decades and the more recent achievements in public-private partnership and infrastructure development. The umbrella framework character of Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan provides broad orientation to the many individual efforts to increase infrastructure support by the different institutions of the Global Bank Group through multiple product lines.
 

The proposed Global Bank Group Strategy recognizes the diversity in development needs of developing countries, which calls for different responses. Capacity in accessing advisory services and knowledge products and in using them to design and implement infrastructure projects and programs is critical for most middle-income countries. However, for low-income countries and fragile states, the situation is quite different. The institutional, organizational, and human capacities of most of them are weak or have been destroyed by wars or civil strife.

The Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan “emphasizes the potential impact of bringing together the different members of the Global Bank Group as they scale up their operation, with our respective skills and instruments, in advancing transformational projects in developing countries. It looks at what is required—in terms of partnership, knowledge, advice, and projects—for infrastructure to accelerate growth and even shift client countries toward a more sustainable development trajectory. It also supports a vision of who will finance infrastructure solutions.

The Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan defines Global Bank Group engagement in infrastructure across sectors in order to respond to demands for more cross-cutting and integrated solutions. The Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan attempts to address these new trends in an integrative fashion, maximizing effectiveness through cross sectoral synergies, leveraging resources from multiple sources, and mainstreaming sustainability (addressing economic/financial, environmental, and social concerns). It outlines three main pillars of future Global Bank Group infrastructure investment. The first is to invest in typical infrastructure projects, “while increasing effectiveness in the areas of poverty, governance, gender and knowledge."

The second pillar is a new focus on large “transformational” projects that “maximise green, regional, and inclusive/broader development benefits”. These will also represent “points of leverage in the universe of potential infrastructure investments opportunities”, meaning projects that involve a greater diversity of financing sources such as donor governments, including new middle-income donors, international mechanisms such as climate funds, and the private sector.

The third pillar aims to bring in “more private sector financing”. The Global Finance Corporation (GFC), the Global Bank Group’s private sector arm, is creating new investment vehicles such as private equity funds and other types of funds for infrastructure to “ramp up” business, while the Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency (GBIGA), the Global Bank Group’s risk insurance agency, will “scale-up its guarantee support to the infrastructure sector".

The Global Bank Group is also implementing an action plan to double private sector engagement in public–private partnership (PPPs) in infrastructure. This strategy will ensure that Global Bank Group response for infrastructure financing at a time when governments are fiscally constrained and official development assistance flows have been reduced. There is an increased need to bring the private sector in the equation.

Countries around the world are confronted with the challenge of satisfying their citizens’ demand for high-quality infrastructure services, while facing severe fiscal constraints. The importance of infrastructure sustainability has gained increasing room in the global discussion. Indeed, infrastructure sustainability is at the core of the global sustainable development agenda: 6 out of the 17 preliminary Sustainable Development Goals deal directly with infrastructure. While the concept of sustainable infrastructure has been traditionally associated with building environmentally sound, or “green” infrastructure, it becomes increasingly evident as each day passes that it reaches well beyond the environmental dimension.

Although there is no final consensus on what sustainable infrastructure entails – as evidenced by the multiplicity of rating and assessment schemes produced in the past few years – there is some agreement with the idea that a comprehensive approach to sustainability should seek to devise infrastructure that is tailored to local social, economic and ecological environment and caters the need for infrastructure services in the most effective and efficient way. This requires not only assessing and addressing environmental risks. Sustainability also requires assuring financial resources to maintain infrastructure over its entire lifespan, considering users’ preferences and needs in the design (for maximum effectiveness), and understanding the institutional and political dynamics in order to guarantee projects’ endurance through the political cycle.

Global Bank Group support to infrastructure is accompanied by dramatic changes in the external environment. Eight trends in particular have been affecting, and will continue to affect, the way infrastructure services are planned, financed, and operated:

  • Climate change;
  • The globalization of trade and services;
  • The growing regional disparities in the context of rapid urbanization and decentralization;
  • Changing global financial conditions, including increases in private investment in infrastructure in emerging markets;
  • An increasingly complex global aid architecture;
  • Rising energy prices;
  • Potential breakthroughs in technologies for delivering infrastructure services in a more sustainable manner; and
  • The food prices crisis. 

These global trends, together with the still large infrastructure service delivery gaps—884 million people without access to safe water, 1.6 billion without electricity, and 2.5 billion without sanitation and the estimated one billion people without easy access to an all- weather road —caused the Global Bank Group to analyze its role in infrastructure.

The growing awareness of the impact of the infrastructure deficit and its impact on developing countries’ poverty reduction and economic growth prospects prompted calls for the Global Bank to engage and scale up its assistance. Upon request from the Board of Executive Directors, Management launched the Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan (GBSIAP) in 2016 for the FY16-21 period.

The total demand for infrastructure investment and maintenance from developing countries is estimated at over US$900 billion per annum. Even at the current Global Bank’s financing target of US$5 to US$7 billion per annum, plus planned future increases, direct Global Bank Group financing would remain modest relative to total needs.

The Global Bank Group estimates that by the end of the Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan, its direct financing support for infrastructure investments will reach US$45 billion. We also anticipate that these amounts will leverage an additional US$50 to US$75 billion in public and private financing for infrastructure.

It is a strategic framework that outlines how the Global Bank Group ("GBG" or the "Bank Group") and its affiliates will expand its lending and non-lending activities over the next five years to respond to the critical needs for infrastructure financing in developing countries.

The Global Bank Group plans to use its financing strength, risk mitigation activities, knowledge capital, and environmental and social safeguards to help countries expand their infrastructure base and maintain facilities in order to respond to the needs of hundreds of millions of poor people in developing countries. We expect that up to US$45 billion in funding will be mobilized over a five-year period via Global Bank Group financing, Official Development Assistance, and other public and private sources.

Global Bank FAQs

The Global Bank is the Administrator of the DRRRF and is responsible for monitoring and reporting on DRRRF performance. The Bank is in particular responsible for ensuring that funds are allocated in accordance with the Financing Strategy agreed with governments, donors and partner entities and in line with defined and agreed‐upon fiduciary standards and performance measures.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Group (Bank Group”) is serving as Trustee for the for the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”). The Global Bank Group, in its capacity as the Trustee, will establish the Trust Fund to receive contributions from Donors to the DRRRF and will hold in trust, as a legal owner, and administer the funds, assets, and receipts that constitute the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund.  The Trustee is accountable to the DRRRF Steering Committee for the performance of its functions.

The Trustee will have no responsibility for the use of the Trust Fund funds transferred, and Activities carried out therewith. In particular, the Trustee shall have no responsibility, fiduciary or otherwise, for the implementation or supervision of Activities financed by such funds, including without limitation, any duties, and obligations that might otherwise apply to a fiduciary or trustee under general principles of trust or fiduciary law.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction Working Groups and the Strategy Working Group are technical advisory bodies accountable to the Management Committee and representing the wider group of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) donors. Both working groups are regional-based bodies, chaired by the Global Bank Group, with the host Government participation.

For the background details of the Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction Working Groups and the Strategy Working Group are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The DRRRF Secretariat will be established to support the work of the DRRRF Steering Committee. The DRRRF Secretariat will be housed in the Newport Coast, California offices of Global Bank and will comprise a small team of professional and administrative staff employed by the Global Bank. The DRRRF Secretariat will be headed by a programme manager in the Climate Change Global Practices within the Network Complex and the Regional Complex Department at the Global Bank.

For the Background details of the DRRRF Secretariat are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance was created by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) with the aim of assisting the DRRRF, with regards to, for example, transparency, efficiency, and effectiveness in the delivery of climate finance. Furthermore, the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance is designed to improve the linkages and to promote the coordination with climate finance related actors and initiatives within and outside the DRRRF.

The DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance consists of up to twenty members who work together to assist the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund with regards to the Financial Mechanism of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund. Currently, DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance has been assigned four specific functions by the DRRRF Steering Committee to allow it to meet its goal. Firstly, the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance has the function of assisting the DRRRF to improve coherence and coordination in the delivery of climate change financing. Secondly, the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance has the function of working to assist the DRRRF in a rationalization of the Financial Mechanism of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund. The third function of the DRRRF Standing Committee on Finance is to support the DRRRF in the mobilization of financial resources for climate financing. Finally, the fourth function is to support the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund in the measurement, reporting, and verification of support provided to developing country.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

A five-member Board of Directors (the “DRRRF Board of Directors”) of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) is responsible for overall supervision and control of the Trust Fund. The DRRRF Board of Directors consisting of representatives of the Global Bank Group and bilateral and multilateral international donors.

The background details of the DRRRF Board of Directors are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Immediate Needs Funding (INF) is money earmarked for the most urgent work in the initial aftermath of a disaster. The funds may be provided to any eligible applicant for eligible emergency work that must be performed immediately and paid for within the first 60 days following approval by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”). Eligible work typically includes debris removal, emergency protective measures, and removal of health and safety hazards. Immediate needs funds can be used for expenses resulting from this eligible work, such as temporary labor costs, overtime payroll, equipment, and material fees.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Once a disaster has occurred, and the Government has declared a state of emergency, the Government will evaluate the recovery capabilities of the state/province and local governments. If it is determined that the damage is beyond their recovery capability, the governor will normally send a request letter to the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), directed through the Regional Director of the appropriate Global Bank region. The DRRRF Steering Committee then decides whether or not to the DRRRF should get involved.

After a DRRRF Steering Committee decision has been made, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund will designate the area eligible for assistance and announce the types of assistance available.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) international cooperation encompasses various means of implementation in addition to financial support. Technical cooperation, capacity building, and technology transfer are as instrumental to disaster risk reduction as financing. The emphasis of the DRRRF on science makes technical cooperation, technology transfer, and exchange of experts particularly important.

International cooperation and global partnership is critical to disaster reduction and to post-disaster reconstruction and recovery, and derives directly from the guiding principles enshrined in the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund as all States, particularly developing countries need support to strengthen their capacity to prevent and reduce disaster risk, support that needs to contribute to and complement national efforts.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund fosters coordinated, sustained, and adequate international support. The DRRRF is developing ways and means to incorporate disaster risk reduction measures into development assistance programs within and across all sectors. In this context, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund and Global Bank and other Global Bank Group entities and agencies have a critical role to play through the provision of risk-informed financial support and loans which support the Global Bank Group’s integrated vision of disaster risk management across sectors and the full engagement of institutions and stakeholders.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Promoting and enhancing action on the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies to States, in particular, developing countries is critical to supporting action on mitigation of greenhouse gases and adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort, as appropriate, is supported by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial Mechanism, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to States, in particular developing countries.

Intellectual property rights and patents
In the context of the priority concerning understanding disaster risk, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund identifies the importance of encouraging the availability of copyrighted and patented materials, including through negotiated concessions. These are certainly an area where the DRRRF normative work is of prime importance.

Disaster risk reduction-informed development assistance
International cooperation is essential in managing disaster risk. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund incorporates disaster risk reduction measures into development assistance programmes within and across all sectors.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Given that disaster risk is on the rise, the continued strengthening of normative frameworks for early warning and disaster response remains of primary importance. Various dimensions would need to be taken into account, such accessibility, multi‐hazard, and multi-sector approach, attribution of powers and resources for local action.

Early warning and preparedness systems have the potential to significantly reduce the loss of life and livelihoods from disasters, simultaneously building resilience and supporting the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The DRRRF’s work in this area supports countries with comprehensive multi-hazard early warning systems, as well as the development of medium and long-term forecasting capacities.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund supports a variety of disaster risk reduction programmes to prevent or minimize damage caused by disasters through early warning systems, disaster preparedness, and mitigation efforts, as well as training for disaster response.

Many the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund programmes improve collection and use of data on disaster risks, including building capacity and infrastructure to observe, analyze, and forecast hazards. These may include mapping hazards, developing people-centered early warning systems, and facilitating the exchange of information on risks. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund also supports the development of information-sharing systems and services, which may involve strengthening networks and promoting dialogue and cooperation among scientific communities and practitioners.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund funds training and learning programs at a community level, for local authorities, and for targeted sectors. Preparedness for response addresses the need to plan for events where managing the risk proves too costly or not feasible. This area of programming directly links disaster risk reduction with disaster management and recovery. In this vein, the DRRRF works to strengthen policy; build technical and institutional capacities; support dialogue, information exchange, coordination and stakeholder engagement; stockpile commodities that may be needed in response; and review and update disaster preparedness and contingency plans.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund” or “GB DRRRF”) framework considers the importance of fiscal and financial instruments in the context of investments for resilience and the integration of disaster risk consideration therein.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund address the barrier to finance in adaptation, sustainable agriculture, energy efficiency, renewable energy, disaster recovery and disaster risk insurance with an innovative financial instrument that has the potential for scaling up financing for a low-carbon, climate-resilient economy.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund aims to increase governments’ financial response capacity to natural disasters. The DRRRF is one of the five pillars of the Global Bank - DRRRF’s comprehensive Disaster Risk Management (DRM) framework which promotes the mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in a broader country development agenda. This is in line with the implementation of Priority Action Number Four of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) – to reduce disaster risk by addressing underlying key factors. Additionally, the G20 and Sendai Report have advanced disaster risk management as a crucial area of focus.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund” or “GB DRRRF”) recognises the need for and gives priority to planning for recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction ahead of disasters. Such initiatives require the engagement of executive and legislative institutions and stakeholders at local and national levels in light of the socio, economic, and political complexities and the coordination requirements. Normative provisions which anticipate and regulate recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction through a Build Back Better approach are essential.

Through Track I, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund works to enhance global and regional advocacy to promote the implementation of the Sendai Framework targets by 2030 in partnership with the United Nations and other international organizations. Through advocacy and continuous engagement with key regional organizations, the partnership will help to elevate disaster risk management (DRM) as a key priority for policy-makers, governments and practitioners, thereby building demand for more targeted country disaster risk management programs, particularly in high-risk, low and middle-income countries.

Climate change has become one of the world’s foremost policy challenges. In line with its mandate and expertise, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund together with Global Bank focuses on the humanitarian, fiscal, financial, and macroeconomic challenges. The DRRRF also advises (e.g., through technical assistance to member countries) on the appropriate design of resilient infrastructure development, carbon pricing and fiscal reforms to promote greener growth more broadly, particularly with regard to getting prices right in energy and transportation systems to reflect environmental costs and building resilience to climate risks.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund” or “GB DRRRF”) places particular emphasis on coordination, and especially on the role of national and local coordination multi-stakeholder forums, such as national and local platforms for disaster risk reduction. In particular in the area of risk identification; building knowledge and awareness, including through campaigns; management, including sharing and dissemination of disaster risk information and data; reporting on the status of disaster risk and progress toward implementation of strategies, plans, and policies; and facilitating multi-sector cooperation.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund” or “GB DRRRF”) emphasis is to manage the underlying drivers of disaster risk through enhancing understanding of disaster risk, governance for disaster risk reduction, investment and measures to strengthen resilience, and preparing for recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – Umbrella Trust Fund priority areas are:

  • Priority 1: Understanding Disaster Risk: Understanding disaster risk in its extent and genesis, including its drivers, is particularly critical to the DRRRF in light of the major shift in emphasis on risk present in the expected outcome, and, accordingly, the need to manage risk in and of itself.
  • Priority 2: Disaster Risk Governance: The DRRRF works to strengthen disaster risk reduction governance in its institutional and participatory aspects at national and local levels. While restating the mainstreaming and integration of disaster risk reduction across all sectors, it puts forward a renewed paradigm to achieve it.
  • Priority 3: Investing in Resilience: Priority area III of the DRRRF is particularly dependent on strong coordination and coherence in the development and implementation of sector policies and programs as well as the implementation of international instruments such as those concerning sustainable development, climate change and variability, and financing. The DRRRF makes a strong call for investing more resources in resilience and ensuring that risk-informed investments be made by both the public and the private sectors, and that disaster risk reduction considerations and measures be integrated into financial and fiscal instruments.
  • Priority 4: Preparedness to “Build Back Better”:  Priority area IV of the DRRRF represents an important mix of continuity and innovation. The continuity aspect of the DRRRF is focused on the need to further improve preparedness for response, including through a renewed commitment toward early warning systems, which be multi‐hazards and multi‐sectoral, and the preservation of the functioning of critical infrastructures for the continued provision of essential services. It also includes the anticipation of “cascading disasters,” i.e., disasters which are magnified by multiple, sequential and interconnected hazards. Attention is also given to evacuation and displacement.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrtf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Disaster risk management was universally endorsed as a development priority through the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in 2005. This framework is an agreement signed by 168 governments and international organizations, including the Global Bank Group and the United Nations, to support disaster prevention across the world.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) is responding to the growing demand from its clients, building disaster resilience through five core areas focusing on:

  • Risk Identification: By understanding disaster risks and anticipating the potential impacts of natural hazards, disaster and climate risk assessments can help governments, communities, businesses, and individuals make informed decisions to manage that risk.
  • Risk Reduction: Disaster risk information can inform different development strategies, plans and projects that can, in turn, reduce risks. This can either be done by avoiding the creation of new risks by mainstreaming in new investments, or improved territorial planning or building practices, or by addressing existing risks, such as retrofitting critical infrastructure, the construction of embankment systems, etc.
  • Preparedness: Adequate preparedness measures are essential because disaster risk can never be completely eliminated. Preparedness through early warning systems save lives and protect livelihoods and is one of the most cost-effective ways to reduce the impact of disasters. Preparedness activities need to include actionable contingency plans down to local and community level to respond to the effects of disasters.
  • Financial Protection: Financial protection strategies protect governments, businesses, and households from the economic burden of disasters. These strategies can include programs to increase the financial capacity of the state to respond to an emergency, whilst protecting the fiscal balance. They also promote the deepening of insurance markets at a sovereign and household level, and social protection strategies for the poorest.
  • Resilient Reconstruction: The challenge of reconstruction also presents an opportunity to promote disaster risk management through integrated resilient recovery and reconstruction planning that will drive longer-term resilient development.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund”, “GB DRRRF” or “DRRRF”) is working to build resilience in vulnerable communities around the globe. The DRRRF is a multi-donor partnership and grant-making financing mechanism. Its purpose is mainstreaming climate change to help achieve the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 - a decade-long plan to help make the world safer from disasters caused by natural hazards — and to support the implementation of the Global Climate Agreement in Paris, and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR), was adopted at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), held on March 14-18, 2015 in Sendai, Japan, and will guide action on disaster risk reduction worldwide for the next 15 years.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund supports countries around the world in mainstreaming a comprehensive and integrated approach to disaster risk management (DRM) into development. The DRRRF was established in October 20017, as a Global Bank Group-supported partnership of donor and recipient countries and international organizations to further reduce the risks from natural disasters and promote international and regional cooperation and to lessen the vulnerability of developed and developing countries alike. The DRRRF supports on-the-ground technical assistance to help developed, and developing countries integrate disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change adaptation into development strategies, policies and investment programs, including post-disaster recovery and reconstruction.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund disaster risk management activities are part of a comprehensive framework. This framework focuses on five core areas of risk management and systematically addressing each core area: risk identification, risk reduction, emergency preparedness, financial protection, and sustainable recovery and reconstruction.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

DRRRF’s strategy is underpinned by seven operating principles:

  1. Demand-driven approach to ensure maximum impact:  The scale of DRRRF support will be determined by client demand and depend on its ability to make progress with providing additional financing, facilitating the transfer of technology, and building knowledge and capacity.
  1. Leveraging development investments and policies: The DRRRF climate actions will facilitate an effective response to client countries’ demands, by cooperating with national and regional institutions and fostering the mainstreaming of climate dimensions into development. The DRRRF activities are organized along four top-level priorities: (i) Support Transformational Policies and Institutions; (ii) Leverage Resources; (iii) Scale up Climate Action; and (iv) Align Internal Processes and Work with Others.
  1. Empowering women and mainstreaming gender: The DRRRF main­streamed gender equality considerations into the entire project cycle to enhance the efficacy of climate change mitigation and adaptation interventions, starting from the identification of prior­ity interventions to achieve the climate management goals of a given jurisdiction or entity.
  1. Focusing on inclusive design and participation, Leave No One Behind: The DRRRF focuses on three areas of support to democratic governance: (1) Fostering inclusive participation; (2) Strengthening accountable and responsive governing institutions; and (3) Grounding democratic governance in international principles. The DRRRF will assist in the identification of effective interventions strengthening participation by the poorest social sectors, as well as by women, youth, persons living with disabilities, and indigenous people.
  1. Jointly addressing disaster and climate risk: The DRRRF will strive to increase the share of adaptation and mitigation co-benefits, improve resilience by further mainstreaming climate change in country programs, encourage investments in climate-smart infrastructure, promote climate-smart cities and agriculture, and further refine and design contingent instruments to deal with disaster risks.
  1. Developing knowledge and sharing best practices.  The DRRRF conducts global and regional communication campaigns as instruments for public awareness and education. Each builds on the existing ones to promote a culture of disaster prevention, resilience and responsible citizenship, generate an understanding of disaster risk, support mutual learning, and share experiences.  The campaigns encourage public and private stakeholders to engage actively in such initiatives and to develop new ones at the local, national, regional and global levels
  1. Prioritizing a results-oriented approach:  The DRRRF's commitment to improving aid and development effectiveness through development cooperation is reflected in its endorsement of key international agreements. These include the 2005 Paris Declaration, the 2008 Accra Agenda for Action, the 2011 Busan Outcome Document and the 2014 Mexico Communique. The key principles of development effectiveness, defined in the Busan outcome are:
  • Country ownership
  • Transparency and accountability
  • Focus on results

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Since the adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action in 2005, as documented in national and regional progress reports on its implementation as well as in other global reports, progress has been achieved in reducing disaster risk at local, national, regional and global levels by countries and other relevant stakeholders, leading to a decrease in mortality in the case of some hazards.   Reducing disaster risk is a cost-effective investment in preventing future losses. Effective disaster risk management contributes to sustainable development. Countries have enhanced their capacities in disaster risk management.  International mechanisms for strategic advice, coordination and partnership development for disaster risk reduction, such as the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), as well as other relevant international and regional forums for cooperation such as the Global Bank Atlantic Reconstruction Trust Fund (GBARTF), have been instrumental in the development of policies and strategies and the advancement of knowledge and mutual learning.  Overall, the Hyogo Framework for Action has been an important instrument for raising public and institutional awareness, generating political commitment and focusing and catalysing actions by a wide range of stakeholders at all levels.

Over the same ten-year time frame, however, disasters have continued to exact a heavy toll and, as a result, the well-being and safety of persons, communities, and countries as a whole have been affected. Over 700 thousand people have lost their lives, over 1.4 million have been injured and approximately 23 million have been made homeless as a result of disasters. Overall, more than 1.5 billion people have been affected by disasters in various ways, with women, children and people in vulnerable situations disproportionately affected. The total economic loss was more than $1.3 trillion. In addition, between 2008 and 2012, 144 million people were displaced by disasters.

Disasters, many of which are exacerbated by climate change and which are increasing in frequency and intensity, significantly impede progress towards sustainable development. Evidence indicates that exposure of persons and assets in all countries has increased faster than vulnerability has decreased, thus generating new risks and a steady rise in disaster-related losses, with a significant economic, social, health, cultural and environmental impact in the short, medium and long-term, especially at the local and community levels. Recurring small-scale disasters and slow-onset disasters particularly affect communities, households and small and medium-sized enterprises, constituting a high percentage of all losses. All countries – especially developing countries, where the mortality and economic losses from disasters are disproportionately higher – are faced with increasing levels of possible hidden costs and challenges in order to meet financial and other obligations.

The Global Bank Disaster Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund climate action will be driven by client demand, focusing on those activities that support the Global Bank’s core mission and build on its comparative advantage. The actions proposed a focus on supporting client demand, recognizing that client needs are different. The Action Plan focuses on supporting the Global Bank Group core mission of supporting the economic and social development efforts of the less developed and developing countries as they seek achievement of internationally agreed upon development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration and the Sustainable Development Goals, and to implement the recommendations of major United Nations conferences and summits. The goals lay out a blueprint for the Global Bank Group, setting its priorities and measuring its results. And it builds on the Global Bank Group comparative advantage to tackle complex, multisectoral problems in an integrated way combining all of its instruments (funding, knowledge, and convening power), its local presence, but global reach and experience, its deep technical expertise and multisectoral integration, and its ability to work across both the public and private sectors.

A comparative detail analysis of the Global Bank Disaster Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is available upon request.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

In this context, the Strategic Framework on Development and Climate Change for the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) the DRRRF will support specific needs and priorities of its diverse clients. Six action areas — each providing tools for supporting both adaptation and actions with mitigation co-benefits — will allow the DRRRF’s entities to build on their relative strengths, increase its synergies, and partner with external players, basing the division of labor on the comparative advantages and mandates:

  1. Support climate actions in country-led development processes;
  1. Mobilize additional concessional and innovative finance;
  1. Facilitate the development of market-based financing mechanisms;
  1. Leverage private sector resources;
  1. Support accelerated development and deployment of new technologies; and
  1. Step up policy research, knowledge, and capacity building.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Natural and human-induced disasters adversely affect hundreds of millions of people every year. In an effort to minimize the impact on vulnerable populations, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund”, “GB DRRRF” or “DRRRF”) supports various disaster risk reduction (DRR) programs aimed at saving lives; protecting livelihoods, assets, and infrastructure before, during, and after a disaster; and increasing communities’ resilience to natural hazards. The DRRRF programs promote self-sufficiency in disaster risk reduction by strengthening the capacity of governments at all levels and communities to identify, manage, and reduce the impacts of natural disasters through sustainable, multi-sectoral programs, as well as to prepare for and respond to potential crises in a timely and efficient manner.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund and implementing partners engage communities, national and local governments, international and regional organizations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to develop effective disaster risk reduction strategies tailored to the needs of at-risk populations. The DRRRF promotes dialogue and coordinated action among stakeholders to address disaster risk reduction in an integrated and comprehensive manner. In addition to supporting regional and country-level programming related to floods, droughts, cyclones, extreme weather events, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanoes, the DRRRF provides technical assistance and supports global disaster risk reduction initiatives. These initiatives will reduce vulnerability to natural hazards affecting the community or household, as well as build the resilience of the community.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is among the global leaders in supporting worldwide disaster risk reduction activities, as well as participates in larger Global Bank Group efforts. The DRRRF participates in disaster risk reduction globally through membership on governing boards, influencing the development of sound disaster risk reduction policies among key partners, such as U.N. humanitarian agencies. In addition, the DRRRF disaster risk reduction and sectoral experts contribute to the development of technical guidelines and provided technical expertise to host nations on disaster risk reduction.

Many countries face a wide range of challenges and constraints in their efforts to reduce disaster vulnerability. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is implementing activities in various sectors to assist in preparedness for and reduction of disasters worldwide, including agriculture and food security, health, nutrition, economic recovery and market systems, protection, shelter and settlements, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The DRRRF’s efforts focus on reducing the impact of natural hazards in vulnerable regions by enhancing local and regional early warning systems; improving local disaster planning and response, including search and rescue activities; strengthening conceptual and implementation models for improving food security; and building the capacity of international and local partners to reduce countries’ vulnerability to disasters.

Each of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund disaster risk reduction program promotes at least one of the five priorities identified by the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). Those are:

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) have the responsibility for coordinating the Global Bank Group relief efforts globally. These relief efforts include: (a) bringing risk reduction investments to the scale necessary to enable countries to achieve the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals; (b) supporting client countries to implement the resilience objectives specified in their Nationally Determined Contributions; (c) harmonizing results measurement for Nationally Determined Contributions; (d) increasing the availability and effectiveness of resilience financing for Small Island States; (e) strengthening Disaster Risk Management (DRM) tools and expanding financial solutions for fast-growing cities in the context of rapid urbanization, populations growth, and climate change; (f) increasing access to early warning and risk information; (g) working with the private sector to address gaps in risk financing; (h) assisting countries transfer risk to the markets through the intermediation of risk management transactions; and (i) working with the humanitarian community to address pressing needs, ahead of the World Humanitarian Summit in 2018.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund supports the post-disaster Action Plans for the Recovery and Development and related initiatives. The DRRRF mobilizes, coordinates and allocates contributions from bilateral, multilateral, corporate and other donors to finance high-priority projects reconstruction and programmes and budget support globally.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund provides funding to the most critical humanitarian priorities based on expert advice from aid workers and agreed planning strategies. Funding decisions are made on the ground, allowing GBARTF to respond to evolving needs and to address critical gaps not covered by other humanitarian funding. This enables the humanitarian community to better reach the most vulnerable and to use available resources more effectively and efficiently.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do andhHow we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

 

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) was established in 2017 by the Global Bank Group (the “Bank Group”) to facilitate the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). It was created to be the focal point in the Global Bank Group for the coordination of disaster risk reduction and ensures synergies among the relevant activities of Global Bank Group agencies and Funds and Programmes, and related activities in socio-economic and humanitarian fields.

The purpose of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is mainstreaming climate change to help achieve the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 - a decade-long plan to help make the world safer from disasters caused by natural hazards — and to support the implementation of the Global Climate Agreement in Paris, and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR), was adopted at the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), held on March 14-18, 2015 in Sendai, Japan, and will guide action on disaster risk reduction worldwide for the next 15 years.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Since the adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action in 2005 progress has been achieved in reducing disaster risk at local, national, regional and global levels by countries and other relevant stakeholders, leading to a decrease in mortality in the case of some hazards. Reducing disaster risk is a cost-effective investment in preventing future losses. Effective disaster risk management contributes to sustainable development.     Countries have enhanced their capacities in disaster risk management.  International mechanisms for strategic advice, coordination and partnership development for disaster risk reduction, such as the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), as well as other relevant international and regional platforms for cooperation such as the Global Bank Atlantic Reconstruction Trust Fund (GBARTF), have been instrumental in the development of policies and strategies and the advancement of knowledge and mutual learning.  Overall, the Hyogo Framework for Action has been an important instrument for raising public and institutional awareness, generating political commitment and focusing and catalyzing actions by a wide range of stakeholders at all levels.

Over the same ten-year time frame, however,  disasters have continued to exact a heavy toll and, as a result, the well-being and safety of persons, communities, and countries as a whole have been affected. Over 700 thousand people have lost their lives, over 1.4 million have been injured, and approximately 23 million have been rendered homeless as a result of disasters. Overall, more than 1.5 billion people have been affected by disasters in various ways, with women, children and people in vulnerable situations disproportionately affected. The total economic loss was more than $1.3 trillion. In addition, between 2008 and 2012, 144 million people were displaced by disasters.

Disasters, many of which are exacerbated by climate change and which are increasing in frequency and intensity, significantly impede progress towards sustainable development. Evidence indicates that exposure of persons and assets in all countries has increased faster than vulnerability has decreased. These disasters generate new risks and a steady rise in disaster-related losses, with significant economic, social, health, cultural and environmental impact in the short, medium and long-term, especially at the local and community levels. Recurring small-scale disasters and slow-onset disasters particularly affect communities, households and small and medium-sized enterprises, constituting a high percentage of all losses. All countries – especially developing countries, where the mortality and economic losses from disasters are disproportionately higher – are faced with increasing levels of possible hidden costs and challenges to meet financial and other obligations.

In December 2015, the unanimously adopted Paris Agreement, which was negotiated by representatives of 195 countries, is a major breakthrough by the international community in resolving climate change. This is the first climate change agreement that includes commitments by all signatories, in the form of Nationally Determined Contributions1. Countries have committed to undertake actions or achieve domestic targets with a view of holding the increase in global average temperature to below 2 degrees Celsius, and pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Countries also plan to increase their ability to adapt to adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate change resilience. Many developing countries stress that climate finance is vital to their ability to fully deliver on their contributions and increase their level of ambition over time. For the Global Bank Group, the Paris Agreement becomes the foundation for its contribution to efficient and effective low-carbon and climate-resilient development.

To enable a successful transition to a low-carbon climate-resilient global economy as envisaged in the Paris Agreement, massive amounts of climate finance must flow to support countries’ achievement of their Nationally Determined Contributions and other low-carbon and climate resilience activities. The Global Bank through the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund provides mitigation and adaptation finance in the context of the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change and has strengthened its commitment to work with clients, other development finance institutions, the private sector, and stakeholders to tackle climate challenge with targeted and innovative finance.

Global Bank Group does this in the context of the development needs of its clients, the Sustainable Development Goals, and the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions for climate action submitted by 180 countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Global Bank Group already provide policy, advisory, financial, and technical support to countries as they transition toward lower carbon, more climate-resilient future

Global Bank Group has adopted new ambitious multi-year targets in late 2015 to rapidly expand climate finance activities, adding to the momentum leading up to the Paris Agreement. The Global Bank Group is scaling up related activities to strengthen policy, build institutional capacity, provide access to finance, and deliver technical support to client countries and their private sectors.

The Global Bank Group has committed to addressing disaster and climate risk throughout all of its development and humanitarian work.

The Global Bank Group has committed to:

  • Make disaster risk reduction a priority for the Global Bank Group organizations;
  • Ensure timely, coordinated and high-quality assistance to all countries where disaster losses pose a threat to people’s health and development; and,
  • Ensure disaster risk reduction for resilience is central to Global Bank Group post-2015 development agenda

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrtf.org/about-us/who-we-are

 
1Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) is a term used under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that all countries that signed the UNFCCC were asked to publish in the lead up to the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference held in Paris, France in December 2015. These intended contributions were determined without prejudice to the legal nature of the contributions. The term was intended as a compromise between "quantified emissions limitation and reduction objective" (QUELROs) and "nationally appropriate mitigation actions" (NAMAs) that the Kyoto Protocol used to describe the different legal obligations of developed and developing countries. Under the Paris Agreement, adopted in December 2015, the INDC will become the first Nationally Determined Contribution when a country ratifies the agreement, unless they decide to submit a new NDC at the same time. Once the Paris Agreement is ratified, the NDC will become the first greenhouse gas targets under the UNFCCC that applied equally to both developed and developing countries.

 

The sponsor of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF” or “DRRRF”) is the Global Bank.

Owned by the Global Bank Group1, the Bank for International Development and Reconstruction, known as the Global Bank borrows in the international capital markets (“BIDR,” “Global Bank,” or “Bank”) is the Global Bank Group’s long-term sovereign lending institution. As a development bank with an agenda driven by G-7/G-8 and G-20-priorities, its leading priority is to promote global economic and social development. Unlike the multilateral development banks (MDBs)2, Global Bank is not restricted to operating only in developing countries.

For interesting facts about the G-7/G-8 and G20:

The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction is a full-fledged private sector global development bank, in formation, – the world’s second global development bank – positioned next to the World Bank and the preeminent regional development banks (MDBs).

The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction was founded in 2013 to help developed, and developing countries achieve economic and social development through financing primarily public sector (sovereign) infrastructure projects and sustainable development. BIDR is one of five institutions that make up the Global Bank Group. BIDR is the part of the Global Bank Group that works with creditworthy countries to promote sustainable, equitable and job-creating growth, reduce poverty and address issues of regional and global importance.

Global Bank’s main goals are to end poverty and hunger and to achieve sustainable development in its three dimensions through promoting inclusive economic growth, protecting the environment, and promoting social inclusion.

The Global Bank’s activities are focused on developing countries, in fields such as human development (e.g. education, health), agriculture and rural development (e.g. irrigation and rural services), environmental protection (e.g., pollution reduction, establishing and enforcing regulations), infrastructure (e.g. roads, urban regeneration, and electricity), large industrial construction projects, and governance (e.g. anti-corruption, institutions development).

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For more information about the Global Bank, what we do and how we do it, please go to the About Us Section of the Global Bank Website at http://www.global-bank.org

 
1Global Bank Group, consisting of five institutions, represents, develops and supports the collective interests of its business interests around the world. One of these institutions is The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction known as the Global Bank,(“BIDR,” “Global Bank,” or “Bank”).  Global Bank is a full-fledged private sector global development bank, in formation, with legal and regulatory rights including formal approval to utilize the term "Bank" pending – the world’s second global development bank – positioned next to the World Bank and the preeminent regional development banks (MDBs).  The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction borrows in the international capital markets.
2The Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) are institutions that provide financial support and professional advice for economic and social development activities in developing countries. The MDBs provide financial and technical support to developing countries to help them strengthen economic management and reduce poverty. Together, the MDBs provide support to the world's poorest in every corner of the globe, strengthening institutions, rebuilding states, addressing the effects of climate change, and fostering economic growth and entrepreneurship.

 

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) expected outcome and goal: “The substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries”

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund prevents new, and reduces existing, disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) goal is to prevent new, and reduce existing, disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience.

To support the assessment of global progress in achieving the outcome and goal of the present Framework, seven global targets have been agreed. These targets will be measured at the global level and will be complemented by work to develop appropriate indicators. National targets and indicators will contribute to the achievement of the outcome and goal of the present Framework. The seven global targets are:

The seven global targets are:

  • Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to contribute to lower the average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020–2030 compared to the period 2005–2015;
  • Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to contribute to lower the average global figure per 100,000 in the decade 2020–2030 compared to the period 2005–2015;
  • Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030;
  • Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030;
  • Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020;
  • Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of the present Framework by 2030;
  • Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to people by 2030.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund”, “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) was established in 2017 by the Global Bank Group (the “Bank Group”) to facilitate the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). It was created to be the focal point in the Global Bank Group for the coordination of disaster risk reduction and ensures synergies among the relevant activities of Global Bank Group agencies and regional organisations, and related activities in socio-economic and humanitarian fields.

DRRRF’s mission is centered on supporting the implementation, follow-up, and review of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, including by fostering coherence with other international instruments, such as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its Sustainable Development Goals, as well as the Paris Agreement on climate change. As such, the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund champions and supports the integration of disaster risk management across different areas of work of the Global Bank Group and of its Members and Non-Member States as well as among a broad range of key stakeholders, including the private sector and civil society.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund prevents new and reduces existing disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) established in October 2017, as a Global Bank Group-supported partnership of donor and recipient countries and international organizations. Created to reduce the risks from natural disasters and promote international and regional cooperation to lessen the vulnerability of developed and developing countries alike, the DRRRF supports on-the-ground technical assistance to help developed and developing countries integrate disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change adaptation into development strategies, policies and investment programs, including post-disaster recovery and reconstruction.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is working to build resilience in vulnerable communities around the globe. The DRRRF is a multi-donor partnership and grant-making financing mechanism. Its purpose is mainstreaming climate change to help achieve the goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 - a decade-long plan to help make the world safer from disasters caused by natural hazards — and to support the implementation of the Global Climate Agreement in Paris, and prevent disasters undermining progress on the Sustainable Development Goals. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR), was adopted at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), held on March 14-18, 2015 in Sendai, Japan, and will guide action on disaster risk reduction worldwide for the next 15 years.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund has three main business lines to achieve its development objectives at the global, regional and country levels.

  • Track 1: Global and regional support to ISDR System: The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) is a committed member of the ISDR system. Together with the ISDR Secretariat, we are formulating a results-oriented work program. This track will support global advocacy, knowledge sharing, support development of information management tools and disseminate and exchange emerging notions of best practice facilitated through global and regional organizations under the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) System.
  • Track 2: Support to countries for developing investment frameworks for disaster risk prevention and mitigation: This track will operate through a multi-donor trust fund and support efforts by developing country governments to enhance investments in risk reduction. Developing a policy option to deal with risks including long-term climate change issues will be made integral to a long-term and sustainable development strategy.1 Countries prone to high disaster risks will be the primary clients. Specific country plans, particularly the Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSs) and Country Assistance Strategies (CASs) will ensure ownership, and implementation follow through.
  • Track 3: Standby Recovery Financing Facility (SRFF): (in pipeline) This Standby Recovery Financing track, proposed to be operated through a mechanism linked to the Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GFIDR), is to support disaster-stricken countries’ immediate recovery needs before medium and long-term recovery programs are formulated and launched. However, a low-income country would be eligible for this only if pre-disaster preparedness and mitigation instruments (Track 2) have been institutionalized in the country, measured in terms of investments in risk reduction as a percentage of GDP or such others measures agreed by the partners of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund. This is being developed in close collaboration with Global Bank’s DRRRF team, and a position paper on this will be available soon for wider consultation.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

 
1Countries with more than 30% population and GDP in areas of risk to one or more hazards (Hotspots Study, The World Bank and Columbia University)

 

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) is a lead Global Bank Group agency working on many areas of resilience and disaster risk reduction (DRR) that are of critical importance globally.  It is hosted by the Global Bank.  The DRRRF  to support the States, in particular developing countries to mainstream disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in national development strategies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and the Sustainable Development. As a facility of the Global Bank, it is best placed amongst the development banks to do this. It also helps to build country capacity to manage disaster risks better, such as through the development and adoption of safer school and hospital designs. It has aligned its strategic objectives to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 and supports its implementation, specifically by “Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters.”

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund has prioritized 20 developing countries1, based on their vulnerability to natural disasters – countries that are disproportionately affected by the consequences of global warming (the “vulnerable 20” or the “V20”).  The DRRRF addresses the negative effects of global warming as a result of heightened socio-economic and environmental vulnerabilities. Approximately half these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa; a further 112 have been earmarked to receive Disaster Risk Management funding and technical support through DRRRF. The DRRRF pursues its objectives at the global, regional, and country levels through three Tracks of programming:

  • Track 1:  Global and Regional partnerships:   designed to enhance global and regional advocacy, partnerships, and knowledge management for mainstreaming disaster reduction.
  • Track 2:  Mainstreaming disaster reduction in development:  directed at ensuring risk assessments, risk mitigation, risk transfer, and emergency preparedness are incorporated into all strategic plans and programmes.  Track 2 also includes special initiatives such as the Economics of Disaster Risk Reduction initiative. These will support global, regional and country level efforts to generate economic evidence for disaster risk reduction.
  • Track 3:  Partnership for Sustainable Recovery:  a disaster recovery fund which aims to accelerate the transition from relief to longer-term recovery after a disaster.  This track supports co-operation among stakeholders in post-disaster damage loss and needs assessments globally.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund works in countries after a disaster hits, with a specific focus on recovery and reconstruction.  Post-disaster, DRRRF leads at the country level in preparing, organising and implementing co-ordinated Post Disaster Needs Assessments with key partners.  Globally, these assessments are recognised as an important leap forward in developing co-ordinated recovery operations.  This comprehensive damage and loss assessment provided the foundation for the subsequent the Action Plan for National Recovery and Development. 

The Action Plan for National Recovery and Development articulated the government priorities for recovery, reconstruction, and development. It leads to a shared understanding between the government and development partners of how to help recover and begin the reconstruction process. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is also contributing to harmonisation between development actors and the Government.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is developing a Results-Based Management System.  This framework has the potential to harmonise resilience and disaster risk reduction objectives across countries and with all partners. Greater joining up in this way will ensure that countries progress faster towards achieving the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction Goals 2015-2030, and reducing the loss of lives and assets.  The DRRRF has been instrumental in agreeing the Results Based Management System, and will continue to push for its adoption in all DRRRF’s priority countries.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

 
1Burkina Faso, Djibouti, Ghana, Haiti, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mozambique, Nepal, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Senegal, Solomon Islands, Togo, Ethiopia, Vietnam and Yemen.
2Bangladesh, Cambodia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, LAO PDR, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vanuatu

 

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) supports priorities for action outlined in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, as well as contribute to achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. The DRRRF Will:
 

  • Promoting open access to risk information: The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund utilizes cutting-edge science and technology to create robust disaster risk information that is openly available and easily understandable by all actors responsible for managing disaster and climate risk. Moreover, DRRRF supports communities to map their exposure to disasters and climate change, ensuring that their voice and knowledge is part of the resilience solution.
  • Promoting resilient infrastructure: Public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures are essential to enhance the economic, social, health and cultural resilience of persons, communities, countries and their assets, as well as the environment. These can be drivers of innovation, growth and job creation. Such measures are cost-effective and instrumental to save lives, prevent and reduce losses and ensure effective recovery and rehabilitation. The objective of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund in infrastructure is to improve alignment and coordination between established and new infrastructure initiatives as well as among multilateral and national development banks, national  institutions and the private sector in order to bridge the ‘infrastructure investment gap’ and to facilitate the implementation of sustainable, accessible and resilient infrastructure for all State, particularly for developing countries.
  • Building resilience at the community level: Over the past 20 years, typhoons, floods, droughts, earthquakes and other natural hazards have claimed 1.35 million lives and affected on average 218 million people per year. They also have devastating effects on socio-economic development with a global economic impact since 2005 surpassing USD 1.3 trillion, mostly in developing countries. If better preparedness planning was in place, time, money and lives could have been saved. The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund to prevent new and reduce existing disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience.
  • Deepening engagements in resilience to climate change: Promoting and enhancing action on the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies to States, in particular developing countries is critical to supporting action on mitigation of greenhouse gases and adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort, as appropriate, is supported by the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund, including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial Mechanism, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to States, in particular developing countries.
  • Enabling resilient recovery: In the face of apparently insurmountable odds, Global Bank Group (the “Bank Group”) has found ways to rebuild smarter, stronger, safer and faster. We are successful because, before disaster strikes, we have already laid the groundwork by fortifying the Bank Group’s physical, digital, financial, and societal infrastructure in an effort to better mitigate and manage post-crisis reconstruction.

The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund is mobilising large-scale financing for effective post-disaster reconstruction and recovery efforts including leveraging public and private climate finance in an effective, catalytic manner to an increased adaptive capacity and a low greenhouse gas emission and climate-resilient development, aiding in the achievement of related Sustainable Development Goals.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

To underscore the importance of peace and security as a central component of the four dimensions of sustainable development. Goal 1 includes a focus on vulnerable regions, including post-conflict regions, and a target to address conflict and violence. Goal 4 includes a target on reducing violence against individuals, especially women and children, which needs to be operationalized at the country level. This target addresses issues of gender-based violence and child protection, as well as personal security, which represent a critical challenge in conflict and post-conflict settings. Indeed, many of the proposed goals address the structural causes of conflict such as inequality and exclusion, extreme poverty in all its forms, and poor governance.

The broader political issues of peace and security, which are typically addressed by the Security Council of the United Nations, go beyond the scope of the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The post-2015 global policy framework, which will include more than the Sustainable Development Goals themselves, should also draw attention to the long-standing but still unfulfilled objective of ridding the world of nuclear weapons.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will set legally binding targets among nations. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will not be legally binding and will not replace or hinder the work of the UNFCCC. Rather, the Sustainable Development Goals, like the Millennium Development Goals today, will provide a global, easily understood, normative framework to mobilize all stakeholders in the fight for sustainable development, which must include efforts to curb human-induced climate change. The Sustainable Development Goals should therefore help the public to understand the critical issues, the solutions, and the urgency of changing course. Similar considerations apply to biodiversity, human rights, and other areas where legally binding international conventions have been adopted, but which also need to be addressed by the Sustainable Development Goals. The Sustainable Development Goals need to get to the crux of the matter on climate change: that is, heading off the rapidly growing dangers. Because the science of climate change continues to evolve, it is important to define the related Sustainable Development Goals so that it can evolve with the progress of scientific understanding and reflect new and hopefully stronger commitments made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Today’s consensus on avoiding a 2°C increase in temperature, for example, may not be ambitious enough according to a growing body of scientific evidence. This is especially troubling since the world is far off course from even achieving the 2°C target.

The world has adopted the Aichi Biodiversity targets as quantitative outcome targets for biodiversity and ecosystems. These 20 targets include outcome objectives to be achieved by 2020. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) targets cannot replicate the full set of Aichi targets, and it strikes us as impossible to pick one ecosystem or one quantitative target over the others. Countries therefore need to set their own quantitative targets under the Sustainable Development Goals, which should ideally be consistent with the Aichi targets. It was proposed to distinguish between ecosystem management at the national and subnational level (first target) and regional or global efforts (second target). The latter are inherently more complex and require different institutional arrangements. Both are critical for sustainable development.

The proposed Sustainable Development Goals targets call for policies to ensure resilient and productive ecosystems. A central objective of such policies must be to address the drivers of ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss, which includes applying the “polluter pays” and “payment for ecosystem services” principles. Suitable indicators, including halting the loss of biodiversity, can and should be constructed at national/local and regional/global levels to measure the achievement of this target across a broad range of ecosystems.

Urban2 sustainable development is a central challenge and a major opportunity for most countries, as urban and slum populations are rising rapidly. The urban share of the world’s population is expected to rise from 52 percent in 2010 to around 67 percent in 2050, and the urban share of GDP and employment will rise commensurately. If managed well, urbanization can create employment and prosperity, and become a central driver for ending extreme poverty and for strengthening social inclusion. If managed poorly, cities will deepen social exclusion and fail to generate enough jobs.

Urban sustainable development is complex, involving not only many sectors but also many political entities, including local neighborhoods, city governments, metropolitan areas, and national governments, which must empower cities and link them to rural areas. As a result, strategies for cities pose highly complex yet crucial challenges. An urban Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) is therefore important to mobilize and bring together the efforts of multiple actors and stakeholders (e.g. local authorities, national governments, businesses, knowledge institutions, and civil society) across a range of urban issues (e.g. urban jobs, housing, infrastructure, governance, disaster risk reduction, and climate change adaptation and mitigation) and mobilize the financial, institutional, and human resources to make this possible.

 
1In this document we use the terms “cities” and “urban areas” interchangeably to denote metropolitan areas and all urban centers that have economic or political importance

 

Providing access to safe water and sanitation, ensuring sound management of freshwater resources, and preventing water pollution are inter-related priority challenges of sustainable development that must be met for other goals and targets to be achieved Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Water access: Delivery models, technologies, and responsible actors for access to water and sanitation differ between urban and rural areas, so we propose to assign these challenges to the urban and rural goals, respectively. This has the added advantage of combining water supply and sanitation, which are often closely linked.

Water resources management: Integrated water resources management and the allocation of water across different uses is a cross-cutting requirement for all goals. Freshwater needs for agriculture (accounting for some 70 percent of freshwater withdrawals), industry, households, and the healthy functioning of ecosystems (sometimes referred to as “green water”) stand out as major challenges. Moreover, water-related disasters, such as floods and droughts, account for a large share of damage from natural disasters. Water resources management and associated disaster risk management cannot be pursued in isolation from the management of agriculture, cities, and ecosystems, so water is part of several goals. The proposed SDG 9 emphasizes the need for integrated water resources management. A suitable indicator for Target 9c might include the ratio of freshwater withdrawals to renewable freshwater supply which should be lower than one.

Water pollution: Water pollution is a separate management challenge. Although not limited to urban areas, water pollution is a significant urban challenge and is therefore included under SDG 7.

The question of how to deal with water challenges in the proposed Sustainable Development Goals has been intensely discussed in the Leadership Council. Some have argued for a stand-alone water goal partly to draw attention to the importance of water management. Overall, though, the proposals provide a sound basis for managing the various water challenges within the framework of ten Sustainable Development Goals, particularly if suitable indicators track the sustainable use of water resources, access to water supply, and water quality. 

Access to infrastructure is essential for ending extreme poverty in all its forms and promoting sustainable development. The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) divide the challenges of providing access to infrastructure between urban (SDG 7) and rural (SDG 6) areas. This division is motivated by the fact that infrastructure technologies, delivery models, and responsible actors vary significantly between urban and rural areas.

Many scholars and an increasing number of governments now collect data on subjective wellbeing (SWB). SWB refers to an individual's own report of his or her sense of happiness or life satisfaction. These subjective accounts have been shown to be systematic and informative of the individual and social conditions in a country that are conducive to a high quality of life. The proposed numerical targets for reducing tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol derive from the World Health Assembly resolution 66.10.2 propose the 2025 target of reducing harmful use of alcohol by 10% be increased to 20% by 2030.

Reducing youth unemployment is a core priority for most countries. The proposed SDG 3 focuses on high- quality primary and secondary education and on effective institutions (such as apprenticeships) that can help youth prepare for decent work. The third target focuses directly on the youth unemployment rate. Likewise, the agriculture goal (SDG 6) includes the need for rural job creation and development, whereas the urban goal (SDG 7) addresses urban employment under its first target.

Decoupling means a drop in primary resource use and pollution as economic growth proceeds. It is achieved through a combination of new technologies (e.g. photovoltaic electricity and wind power substituting for fossil fuels), investments in energy efficiency (e.g. reduced losses on the power grid, improved insulation for homes), the dematerialization of production (e.g. the shift from vinyl albums to online music and from books to e-books), and proper economic incentives for individuals, businesses, and governments.

Resource efficiency (more output per unit of resource input) is a necessary but not sufficient condition. Greater efficiency in oil and gas extraction (e.g. hydrofracking) can expand rather than reduce CO2 emissions. Greater efficiency in internal combustion engines can lead to larger cars rather than fuel savings. Thus, technological changes need to be combined with appropriate policy incentives.

There are many pessimists regarding decoupling who feel that the only way to limit resource use is to limit overall economic growth. We disagree. Decoupling has not yet been tried as a serious global strategy, and we believe that advances in areas such as information and communications technologies, energy technologies, materials science, advanced manufacturing processes, and agriculture will permit continued economic growth combined with a massive reduction in the use and waste of key primary commodities, a sharp drop in greenhouse gas emissions and other forms of pollution.

Most simply because it is the essence of proposed SDG 2. As emphasized throughout this document and in the “Framework of Programs on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns” adopted at United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), the use of environmental resources and pollution must be brought down to levels that can be sustained over the long run. This in turn will require a major decoupling of pollution and environmental resource use from rising living standards and economic growth, consistent with achieving a net reduction in both aggregate pollution and resource use. In many areas consumption and production patterns will need to change significantly. Yet, the key question is not the level of “consumption” or “production” per se, but their primary resource, pollution, and ecosystem implications. Consumption and production in an economic sense (i.e., improvement of material conditions) can grow provided they are decoupled from pollution and unsustainable natural resource use. This is the normative essence of SDG 2.

Modern Earth-systems science (including geology, climate science, hydrology, and ecology) makes clear that human activity is now dangerously impinging on vital Earth functions, including climate, the water cycle, the nitrogen cycle, biodiversity, ocean acidification, particulate pollution, and more. Scientists are identifying certain thresholds or “planetary boundaries” beyond which human activity can have dire effects on human wellbeing and on ecosystem functions everywhere. Unless human development respects these planetary boundaries, people in all countries are likely to face severe environmental degradation that could severely set back human development. Yet it is possible for countries to grow while respecting these boundaries, mainly by improving efficiency, shifting to sustainable technologies, restraining various kinds of wasteful behaviors, and by decelerating population growth more rapidly. The proposed SDG 2 therefore underscores the right to development for all countries within planetary boundaries. It is closely related to the better-known concept of sustainable consumption and production. This goal includes a target on economic growth as a key dimension of the right to development. A second target focuses on the need to measure and track the environmental impact of growth in every country by reforming national accounting systems. A third target focuses on the rapid attainment of population stabilization. The transformations needed for the world and for every country to respect planetary boundaries are addressed in the goals below (particularly SDGs 6 to 10).

Certain parts of the world, including the Sahel, the Horn of Africa (plus Yemen), the Great Lakes region of Central Africa, and parts of Central Asia, face extraordinary challenges as the result of the combination of extreme poverty, weak infrastructure, chronic violence, rapid population growth, and inherently difficult geographical conditions (such as being landlocked, small island states, extremely arid, highly vulnerable to droughts and floods, and/or having a high burden of communicable diseases such as malaria). Countries facing these tremendous and interconnected challenges need special international support, including timely and adequate external assistance. They also need a regional focus, since many of the problems (weak transportation, cross-border nomadism, displaced populations, droughts, epidemics, and conflicts) occur at the regional scale and must be addressed in part at that scale.

The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deal with inequalities in several ways:

i.     SDG 4 has explicit targets on ending discrimination and reducing relative poverty, which describes the proportion of households with incomes below 50 percent of the national median. Relative poverty is a widely used measure of inequality. 


ii.    Many of the goals emphasize universal access to various public services and infrastructure that
give every person, especially women, a fair chance at prosperity (note in particular SDGs 3 to 9). Achieving universal access will require that special strategies address deep-rooted inequalities across regions, gender, ethnicities, income levels, and other dimensions. 


Recommend that the Sustainable Development Goals indicators be disaggregated as much as possible by geography, income, socio-economic group, and other identifiers to track inequalities in Sustainable Development Goals outcomes. As described in Section V, for every Sustainable Development Goals call on countries to monitor and to end inequalities in outcomes across sub-populations. 

Several arguments have prompted the Leadership Council to include hunger and nutrition under extreme poverty:

i.     Hunger and malnutrition are challenges that affect rural as well as urban areas, so grouping hunger under a place-based “rural” goal might weaken the focus on urban hunger; 


ii.    Hunger is not only a function of food availability, which a goal focused on sustainable food production might suggest; 


iii.   Stunting and malnutrition are key dimensions of extreme poverty that give substance to the notion of “extreme poverty in all its forms”; and 


iv.   A poverty/hunger goal ensures full continuity with MDG 1. 


Note that in sub-Saharan Africa, the links between hunger and low agricultural productivity are especially acute, so that, in this region, the reduction of hunger and the achievement of sustainable agriculture are deeply intertwined. 

The term “extreme poverty in all its forms” for the multidimensional concept of poverty encapsulated in the Millennium Development Goals, comprising inter alia income poverty, hunger, gender inequality, lack of education, poor health, and lack of access to basic infrastructure services. Extreme income poverty or “absolute income poverty” is defined by the Global Bank Group as a per capita income of less than $1.25 per day. The measure social inclusion in part by the use of “relative poverty,” defined by the (OECD) as the proportion of households with incomes less than half of the national median income.

It is important that every target can be measured at the national or local level, but not every target can be defined globally in a meaningful way, for three distinct reasons:

i.     The starting points may differ too much across countries for a single meaningful quantitative standard at the global level; 


ii.    Some targets need to be adapted and quantified locally or may be relevant only in subsets of countries (e.g. those that refer to specific ecosystems); 


iii.   For some targets no global consensus exists today, and these still need to be negotiated, as is the case with greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. In the meantime, countries should establish their own plans and targets. 


In some cases, proposed numerical targets are presented in square brackets since these numbers are preliminary and may need to be reviewed by the corresponding technical communities.

Many targets call for “universal access” (e.g. to infrastructure) or “zero” deprivation (e.g. extreme poverty, hunger). For each such target, the technical communities and member states will need to define the precise quantitative standard for their commitment to “universal access” or “zero” deprivation. In most cases these standards will indeed be 100 percent or 0 percent, respectively, but there may be areas where it is technically impossible to achieve 100 percent access or 0 percent deprivation. In such cases countries should aim to get as close as possible to 100 percent or 0 percent, respectively.

Where possible, the Sustainable Development Goals should focus on outcomes, such as ending extreme poverty. Yet, the distinction between outcomes, outputs, and inputs needs to be handled pragmatically, and the design of goals and targets should be guided by approaches that are best suited to mobilize action and ensure accountability. For example, ensuring universal access to healthcare or high-quality early childhood development (ECD) are important commitments for every government. Goals and targets that focus on these outputs will ensure operational focus and accountability. In some instances it also makes sense to target inputs. For example, official development assistance (ODA) is critical for ensuring many Sustainable Development Goals and needs to be mobilized in every high-income country. Mobilizing resources for sustainable development is difficult, so subsuming official development assistance as an implicit input into every Sustainable Development Goal would make it harder for government leaders, citizens, and civil society organizations to argue for increased official development assistance. It would also weaken accountability for rich countries. Similar considerations apply, for example, to the proposed target on integrated reporting by governments and businesses on their contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals.

The targets proposed should be specified at the global and national level to ensure that they can be measured in a timely and accurate way using one or more indicators. The indicators should be well designed to enable data collection and monitoring. The statistical agencies should promote the use of advanced data tools, including remote sensing, real-time monitoring with smartphones, crowdsourcing, GIS mapping, and other techniques.

Several criteria have been identified for crafting the Sustainable Development Goals. They should be:

  1. Universal: The goals should be applicable to all countries. In particular they should address the needs of low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries. 

  2. Comprehensive: Together, the ten goals should spell out the principal challenges of sustainable 
development and provide a normative framework for the global partnership needed to address the profound and interconnected challenges the world faces. For example, the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) feels that climate change is such an important challenge that these words need to appear in the title of one of the goals. 

  3. Operational: To the extent possible, each goal should address and mobilize clearly defined knowledge communities comprising government departments, business, civil society, international organizations, and academia/research. Some goals therefore focus on specific operational or place-based challenges, such as urban management, climate change, or sustainable agriculture. Others focus on cross-cutting issues like gender equality or water management that must be addressed in every goal, but should also be highlighted through a dedicated goal. 

  4. Jargon-free and easy to understand: Children should be able to learn the goals at school as a clear introduction to sustainable development. To this end the wording of the goals needs to be free of jargon. Where important technical concepts (e.g. ecosystems) are needed these should be included and become part of the introduction to sustainable development. 

  5. SMART Targets: In general, targets should be “SMART”: specific, measurable (though some targets should remain fairly general and may require the setting of national/local targets or new metrics), attainable (though some will be “stretch” goals that can be attained only with considerable effort), relevant (to the four dimensions of sustainable development), and time bound to 2030 or earlier. 

  6. Applicable to all stakeholders: The goals should apply to governments at all levels, business, civil society, international organizations, and other stakeholders. 

  7. Integrated: The goals should promote integrated thinking and put to rest the futile debates that pit one dimension of sustainable development against another 

  8. Limited in number: The Sustainable Development Solutions Network believes that ten is the maximum practical number. Beyond ten, the goals would lose the benefit of public understanding and motivation.

As described in this document and illustrated in Annex 2, the world’s challenges are interconnected and must therefore address all four dimensions of sustainable development (economic development and ending poverty, social inclusion, environmental sustainability, and good governance including peace and security). To reflect the need for integration, the proposed ten Sustainable Development Goals and their thirty targets have been designed to address multiple dimensions of sustainable development.

The proposed Sustainable Development Goals in such a way as to stay close to the structure of the Millennium Development Goals. They are not ordered by priority. All are very important and work in harmony with the others.

The Millennium Development Goals are the world’s shared goals for ending extreme poverty in all its forms and will expire at the end of 2015. They have supported tremendous progress, including the reduction by half of the poverty rate of developing countries taken as a group. However, the job of ending extreme poverty in all its forms is far from complete country by country, particularly among disadvantaged groups and regions within countries. For this reason, the Sustainable Development Goals start with a clear commitment to finishing the work of the Millennium Development Goals by resolving under SDG 1 to end extreme poverty and hunger by 2030. The Global Bank Group has committed to the goal of ending extreme poverty by 2030, and to achieve sustainable development in its three dimensions through promoting inclusive economic growth, protecting the environment, and promoting social inclusion. Member states may decide to include suitably updated Millennium Development Goals targets under SDG 1 as measures of extreme poverty in all its forms. Alternatively, the targets on ending extreme poverty may be distributed across the corresponding Sustainable Development Goals.

The Sustainable Development Goals are universal, applying to all nations, rich and poor alike. They have a 15-year time frame, like the Millennium Development Goals, thereby covering the period 2015 to 2030. The Sustainable Development Goals should address all four dimensions of sustainable development (economic, social, environmental, and governance) and set objectives for governments at all levels, as well as for business and civil society. Not every goal will be a “stretch goal” for every country. Rich countries, for instance, will have met goals related to ending extreme poverty. Yet all countries lag behind on some dimensions of sustainable development.

Business deserves special note as a principal engine for economic growth and job creation. The term “business” comprises a great diversity of organizations ranging from small shops to large multinational corporations and financial institutions. Collectively, businesses will develop and deliver many of the new technologies, organizational models, and management systems that are needed for sustainable development. Businesses also directly account for some two-thirds of natural resource use. If businesses embrace the Sustainable Development Goals and are supported by clear government policies and rules that align private incentives with sustainable development, then rapid positive change will become possible.1 If businesses operate under values and incentives that are misaligned with the objectives of sustainable development, then the transformations outlined in this document will be impossible.

Similarly, sustainable development cannot occur without civil society doing its part. The Sustainable Development Goals are a guide and standard for civil society as well, including universities and other expert communities, non- governmental organizations (NGOs), philanthropies and foundations, environmental groups, social enterprises, and others. Each of these civil society actors will have their own distinctive role to play in support of the Sustainable Development Goals.

 
1One example of a values-based business initiative that also includes a development dimension is the United Nations Global Compact

 

The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) adopted the principle of sustainable development goals to be crafted and adopted by United Nations member states before the end of 2015. The proposed goals outlined by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) are one of many inputs into this debate.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are one part of the global policy framework for the period after 2015. Just as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were part of the Millennium Declaration, which goes well beyond the Millennium Development Goals to include issues of war and peace, the Sustainable Development Goals will be one part of the global policy agenda after 2015. The broader agenda including issues of war and peace, ridding the world of nuclear weapons as per the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and addressing major macroeconomic challenges such as reforming the global financial systems to prevent a repeat of the devastating 2008 financial crisis.

 

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) demonstrate the power of global goals, backed by quantitative targets, in building momentum for national and local action. Addressing the challenges of sustainable development requires a shared focus on ending extreme poverty in all its forms and a structural transformation in the way that national and local economies operate. The necessary focus and collaboration across actors and countries can best be achieved through shared global objectives for sustainable development. That is why the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) called for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Of course, setting global goals – even if they are based on shared values – will have little impact unless followed up by concerted action. However, averting the business-as-usual (BAU) trajectory will be nearly impossible without an ambitious and universal set of Sustainable Development Goals.

Well-crafted Sustainable Development Goals guides the public understanding of complex long-term challenges, inspire public and private action, and promote accountability. They builds on existing global initiatives and bring together ongoing efforts in sustainable development. The Sustainable Development Goals is a complementary to the tools of international laws, such as global treaties and conventions, by providing a normative framework for the global partnership needed to address the interconnected challenges the world faces. Children around the world will learn a simplified version of the goals as a clear introduction to sustainable development. For business people, government officials, civil society, and others, the goals will promote integrated thinking and help to stave off the futile debates that often pit one dimension of sustainable development against another. They will mobilize governments and the international system to strengthen measurement and monitoring for sustainable development. 

The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) outcome document refers to three dimensions of sustainable development (economic, social, and environmental) and emphasizes the importance of good governance as well as peace and security, which are sometimes referred to as a foundation of sustainable development. For simplicity we refer to the four societal objectives as dimensions of sustainable development: economic development (including ending extreme poverty), social inclusion, environmental sustainability, and good governance including peace and security.

The proposed goals and targets were prepared by the Leadership Council of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) to help inform the debate around Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including the work of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, which has recently submitted its report to the United Nations Secretary-General, and the Open Working Group on the Sustainable Development Goals established at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). The Leadership Council took into consideration proposals emerging from the thematic and national consultations organized by the United Nations Task Team, other processes, and numerous reports issued by civil society and research organizations. The Leadership Council also benefited enormously from hundreds of comments received during public consultations on the document.

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Civil society is a crucial interlocutor for the G7 Presidencies. It plays an advocacy role, helping mobilize key actors and bringing institutions closer to the grassroots level. Civil society also encourages and monitors the leaders, to ensure that they honor the pledges they have made. Italy has initiated ongoing dialogue with all the representatives of the so-called G7 engagement groups (Business7, Civil7, ThinkThank7, Labor7, Science7, Women7 and Youth7), which will not only submit their policy recommendations to the leaders and institutions in connection with the issues on the G7 agenda, but will also organize their own parallel summits over the course of Italy’s Presidency.

The involvement of the emerging economies, of developing countries and of international organizations has kept pace with, and reflects, a gradual evolution in the issues addressed by the Group of Seven. Initial interest in issues relating solely to financial stability and to macro-economic coordination were soon joined by an interest in other crucial themes ranging from development in Africa and climate change to food safety and the resolution of international crises. It was Italy, in Genoa in 2001, that inaugurated the now traditional “African segment” of the Summit, with dialogue sessions between the G7 leaders and the African countries invited by the Presidency.

In March 2014, the G7 decided that, in view of Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea, meaningful discussions within the context of the G8 are currently not possible. Since then the meetings have continued in the G7 format. 

By taking this decision the G7 emphasised that it is a community of values that cannot accept a breach of international law. That is why the G7 met in Brussels for a summit on 4 and 5 June 2014 instead of taking part in the planned G8 summit in Sochi, Russia.

The first meetings between the European Community and the G7 were held in London in 1977. Since the Ottawa Summit in 1981 the European Commission has regularly attended all the working sessions. The European Union shares all the G7’s values and is itself an important economic factor.

Because the EU, unlike the other members of the G7, is a supranational organisation and not a sovereign state. However, it has the same privileges and obligations. 

The EU is one of the world’s key economic areas. It is also increasingly addressing security policy issues.

Other guests will be invited to the summit of the heads of state and government to discuss specific topics as part of what is known as the expanded dialogue. There is a long tradition of involving third countries and international organisations in G7 summits. The heads of state and government of various African nations are invited to one of the sessions. In a way of example, the G7 in Schloss Elmau has support the African states in their reform efforts. The aim was and still is to contribute to boosting peace, security, growth and sustainable development in Africa.

Before the G7 summits meeting will be held with representatives from business, the scientific community, trade unions, non-governmental organisations and young people from the G7 countries.

A number of working groups comprising experts from the G7 member countries have been set up over the years to follow up on the pledges made by the Heads of State and of Government and to explore the more technical aspects of the debates in greater depth. Under the guiding hand of the Sherpas, Political Directors and Foreign Affairs Sous-Sherpas, the G7 countries’ experts address such specific issues as health, food safety, development, energy, environmental protection, non-proliferation and support for the United Nations’ peacekeeping and peace-consolidating operations.

The G7‘s institutional structure is headed by a “Sherpa,” personal representatives of the Heads of State and of Government of the world’s seven most industrially advanced countries.

The role they play is named after the figures that guide adventurers to Himalayan peaks. Like the mountain climbing porters, the G7 Sherpas do the heavy lifting, overcoming obstacles and safely navigating the chosen paths, thereby defining those positions that will be undersigned at the Summit, on important global issues.

Sherpas are also responsible for the preparatory process preceding the Summit and oversees negotiations regarding the drafting of the Final Communiqué.

Sherpas regularly communicate with each other in connection with their respective leaders’ positions and proposals on international issues, and they are in touch with their leaders directly at all times.

The post of Sherpa is traditionally held by a high-ranking diplomat.

The Sherpas are supported in their role by Foreign Affairs Sous-Sherpas (FASS) and a Political Directors (PD). They are assisted by a representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (the PD) who is responsible for foreign and security policy issues, and by another representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (the FASS) who is generally in charge of such cross-cutting issues as the environment, social and economic aspects, and development.

The Economy and Finance Ministry, on the other hand, handles the economic and financial issues on the Summit’s agenda. Ad hoc working groups can also be set up to address particularly complex, technical issues.

Web conferences are used to exchange facts. They are not conducive to creating the informal, relaxed atmosphere in which ideas are formed and trust is established. The event would take on a completely different character.

  • 2019     France
  • 2020    United States
  • 2021    United Kingdom
YearPlaceHost
Year:1975Place:G6 Summit in RambouilletHost:France
Year:1976Place:G7 Summit in San JuanHost:USA
Year:1977Place:G7 Summit in LondonHost:United Kingdom
Year:1978Place:G7 Summit in BonnHost:West Germany
Year:1979Place:G7 Summit in TokyoHost:Japan
Year:1980Place:G7 Summit in VeniceHost:Italy
Year:1981Place:G7 Summit in OttawaHost:Canada
Year:1982Place:G7 Summit in VersaillesHost:France
Year:1983Place:G7 Summit in WilliamsburgHost:USA
Year:1984Place:G7 Summit in LondonHost:United Kingdom
Year:1985Place:G7 Summit in BonnHost:West Germany
Year:1986Place:G7 Summit in TokyoHost:Japan
Year:1987Place:G7 Summit in VeniceHost:Italy
Year:1988Place:G7 Summit in TorontoHost:Canada
Year:1989Place:G7 Summit in ParisHost:France
Year:1990Place:G7 Summit in HoustonHost:USA
Year:1991Place:G7 Summit in LondonHost:United Kingdom
Year:1992Place:G7 Summit in MunichHost:Germany
Year:1993Place:G7 Summit in TokyoHost:Japan
Year:1994Place:G7 Summit in NaplesHost:Italy
Year:1995Place:G7 Summit in HalifaxHost:Canada
Year:1996Place:G7 Summit in LyonsHost:France
Year:1997Place:G7 Summit in DenverHost:USA
Year:1998Place:G8 Summit in BirminghamHost:United Kingdom
Year:1999Place:G8 Summit in CologneHost:Germany
Year:2000Place:G8 Summit in OkinawaHost:Japan
Year:2001Place:G8 Summit in GenoaHost:Italy
Year:2002Place:G8 Summit in KananaskisHost:Canada
Year:2003Place:G8 Summit in Évian-les-BainsHost:France
Year:2004Place:G8 Summit in Sea IslandHost:USA
Year:2005Place:G8 Summit in GleneaglesHost:United Kingdom
Year:2006Place:G8 Summit in Saint PetersburgHost:Russia
Year:2007Place:G8 Summit in HeiligendammHost:Germany
Year:2008Place:G8 Summit in TōyakoHost:Japan
Year:2009Place:G8 Summit in L’AquilaHost:Italy
Year:2010Place:G8 Summit in MuskokaHost:Canada
Year:2011Place:G8 Summit in DeauvilleHost:France
Year:2012Place:G8 Summit in Camp DavidHost:USA
Year:2013Place:G8 Summit in Lough ErneHost:United Kingdom
Year:2014Place:G7 Summit in BrusselsHost:Belgium
Year:2015Place:G7 Summit in BavariaHost:Germany
Year:2016Place:G7 Summit in Shima-shiHost:Japan
Year:2017Place:G7 Summit in SicilyHost:Italy
Year:2018Place:G7 Summit in QuebecHost:Canada

 

The country holding the presidency is responsible for organising the annual summit and for drawing up the summit agenda. The governments’ chief negotiators, known as sherpas, do the preparatory and follow-up work. They establish on which issues agreement can be reached and where there is still need for discussion, and they prepare the final declarations containing the key outcomes of the summit.

The decisions the G7 takes in full view of the world have a huge political impact. Experts refer to this as their binding effect. At home, the heads of state and government are also measured by what they achieve and agree at G7 meetings.

The G7 do not reach decisions by majority vote. The countries have to reach unanimous agreement on their summit declaration. Even if the decisions are not legally binding, their global impact should not be underestimated.

The Presidency is held by each of the member countries in turn, in the following order: France, United States, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Italy and Canada. The European Union attends the G7 but neither chairs nor hosts Summits.

Italy will hold the Presidency from January 1 to December 31, 2017, a role it has played on five previous occasions in the history of the Group of Seven. It will thus be Italy’s responsibility to: propose and identify the Group’s priorities for action and consequently those areas requiring intervention; host and organize the technical and informal meetings that pave the way to the Summit, attended by the relevant Heads of State and of Government, as well as all the Ministerial Meetings; prepare the drafts and final texts of all supporting documents, including the Final Communiqué. The latter, adopted by the leaders at the end of each Summit, summarizes the main global issues debated during the year. While this communiqué is not a binding document in the strictest sense of the term, it is nonetheless of the utmost importance. It enshrines the pledges that the G7 Heads of State and of Government make regarding the political guidelines that they intend to pursue together.

The G7 is a forum for dialogue at the highest level attended by the leaders of the world’s most important industrially advanced democracies. Its chief features are the intergovernmental nature of the preparatory process and its informality, which makes it easier for the leaders to discuss the world’s major issues and to rapidly devise and agree on solutions to them. Given that it is not an international organization, it is devoid of any kind of administrative structure or permanent

The G7 is not an international organisation, but what is known as an unofficial forum. That means that it does not adopt resolutions that have direct legal effect. The G7 has neither its own administrative apparatus with a permanent secretariat nor someone who acts as its members’ permanent representative. That is why the rotating presidency is so important.

Because of the economic problems the countries were faced with in the 1970s: the first oil crisis and the breakdown of the system of fixed currency exchange rates. The first meeting served to exchange ideas on possible solutions. The countries taking part reached agreement on international economic policy and first measures for reversing the ongoing global economic downturn.

The G7 sees itself as a community of values that stands for peace, security and a self-determined life all around the world. Freedom and human rights, democracy and the rule of law, as well as prosperity and sustainable development are key principles of the G7.

The first summit, in 1975, was attended by France, Germany, the US, Britain, Japan and Italy. Known at the time as the G6, it started as a forum for non-Communist powers to address pressing economic concerns, including inflation and recession following an OPEC oil embargo.

Canada was invited to join a year later, creating the G7, which became formalised with annual meetings between the heads of the seven governments.

Representatives of the European Union have been additional participants to summits since 1981.

Russia was first invited as a guest observer in 1997 as a way to encourage then-President Boris Yeltsin's capitalist reforms, and formally joined a year later. However, it was kicked out in 2014 over the annexation of Crimea.

France, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and West Germany formed the Group of Six in 1975 (Canada joined the following year) to provide a venue for the non-Communist powers to address pressing economic concerns, which included inflation and a recession sparked by the OPEC oil embargo. Cold War politics invariably entered the group’s agenda.

The European Union (EU) has participated fully in the G7 since 1981 as a “nonenumerated” member. It is represented by the presidents of the European Council, which comprises the EU member states’ leaders, and the European Commission, the EU’s executive body. There is no formal criteria for membership, but participants are all developed democracies. The aggregate GDP of G7 member states makes up nearly 50 percent of the global economy, down from nearly 70 percent three decades ago.

 

7 GDP as a share of Global GDP

 

Unlike the United Nations or the NATO, the G7 is not a formal institution with a charter and a secretariat. Instead, the presidency, which rotates annually among member states, is responsible for setting the agenda and arranging logistics. Ministers and envoys, known as sherpas, hammer out policy initiatives at meetings that precede the annual summit of national leaders.

The annual G7 Summit of the Heads of State and of Government is usually held in the middle of the year and is the highest-profile event of the entire G7 Presidency. The Summit will be attended not only by the G7 member countries’ leaders, but also by the leaders of select International Organizations, and by the Heads of State and of Government of “outreach” countries and of countries invited as guests of the Presidency.

The event is spread out over two working days and winds up with the submission and adoption of the Final Communiqué. France and the United States are represented by their Heads of State, while the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Italy and Canada are represented by their Heads of Government. The European Union is represented by both the President of the European Commission and the President of the European Council.

The Group of Seven (G7) comprises seven leading industrialised nations: The United States of America, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan, Canada and Germany. In addition, the European Union sends representatives to all the meetings. 

The summits give the heads of state and government the opportunity to discuss their respective positions in personal meetings. A summit declaration containing the key outcomes is issued at the end of each summit meeting, sometimes along with additional reports and action plans. 

Participants discuss issues that are of global importance, including global economic issues and foreign, security and development policy. They also address those issues that require political action and that generate widespread public interest.

The Group of Seven (G7) is an informal grouping of seven of the world’s advanced economies consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The forum offers an opportunity for G7 Leaders, Ministers and policy makers to come together each year to build consensus and set trends around some of today’s most challenging global issues.

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The Media Relations Division can be contacted via the Media Relations Contact Form

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Temporary accreditation, for a maximum period of five days, may be issued for a specific event.  Applications need to be made two weeks in advance.

- Permanent accreditation
A permanent accreditation card, for a maximum period of 12 months, may be issued to journalists who are regularly present, either because they are based in California or in adjacent regions/countries or because they are required to follow the work of Global Bank on a regular basis.

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Media accredited to cover the Global Bank and the Annual and Spring Meetings of Global Bank Board Governors meeting and other Global Bank events will have access to:

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Accredited journalists only are invited to complete our brief registration form to tell us about your interests and the media outlets where your work appears. The site offers advance access to Global Bank information and opportunities to submit questions through online press conferences.  Because the Online Press Briefing Center is intended for journalists only, applications from non-journalists will be rejected.

The Media Relations Division (MRD) in the Corporate and External Affairs Vice Presidency Unit (CEXT) of Global Bank plays a key role in the dissemination of Global Bank information to the local and foreign media organizations through the Global Bank Online Press Briefing Center. Global Bank Press Briefing Center is a one-stop portal managed by Media Relations Division with links to various Global Bank agencies. It enables Global Bank to send press releases including speeches and press statements to the media directly.  These press releases are available for retrieval at the Global Bank Press Briefing Center Website as follows:

http://www.news.global-bank.org/pres-scenter/

The Media Relations Division also facilitates the processing of Press Accreditation Card (PAC) applications, advises foreign media on the setting up of bureaus in Global Bank, and facilitates the organizing of certain Global Bank media events.

The Media Relations Division can be contacted via the Media Relations Contact Form.

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In its dealings with external providers, Global Bank is committed to respecting the fundamental principles regarding public procurement, such as the principles of equal treatment, non-discrimination and transparency. Global Bank considers that, as a general rule, these principles can be best implemented by competition among qualified tenderers and by a selection based both on cost and quality considerations.

For more information about the Global Bank, what we do and how we do it, please go to the Procurement section of our website.

Global Bank's version of the Standard Bidding Document for Goods and its User's guide is based on the Master Bidding Document for the Procurement of Goods and User's Guide prepared by the Multilateral Development Banks and International Financial Institutions.

Global Bank is harmonizing, to the highest possible degree, procurement policy and master bidding documents in a joint effort to enhance economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and fairness in all multilateral development banks (MDBs1) public and private sector projects. The Harmonized Master Documents reflect what is considered “best practices” and are intended to be used as a basis by the participating organizations for issuing a standard procurement document for each individual institution. In preparing the institutional own standard procurement documents, the Harmonized Master Documents are expected to be followed, insofar as possible, while allowing for institutional and member country considerations.

1The multilateral development bank are African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, Black Sea Trade and Development Bank, Caribbean Development Bank, Council of Europe Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Investment Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank, and the World Bank.

The Global Bank maintains the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) website. The website presents basic information on all investment grants projects financed by the DRRRF and provides easy access to results reporting for each of the projects. The DRRRF website provides access to all core project documents, including the Project Paper and Implementation Status and Results reports, which is the Global Bank’s mechanism for results reporting.

All the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) financial statements, quarterly reports to donors, as well as the Annual report are regularly posted in the Donors Center section of the DRRRF website. You can access DRRRF key documents and reports through the Library Section of the DRRRF website.

Donors and other parties that require more information on the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”)  and on Global Bank grants and investments instruments can contact Global Bank directly by sending an email to GB DRRRF Secretariat via our Secretariat Contact Form.

Donors can contact the Global Bank, the Administrator for the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”), to indicate your intention to make donations. The main point of contact is ____________, DRRRF CEO, based in Newport Coast (GBDRRRF Secretariat Contact Form).

The Global Bank expects borrowing countries and companies to observe the highest standards of ethics during the procurement process.  Companies can report allegations of fraud and corruption to an Anti-Corruption Hotline (toll free: 1-800-000-0xxx).   If the Global Bank deems that a company has engaged in fraudulent or corrupt practice, it may debar the company from competing for future Global Bank-financed contracts. A list of debarred firms is maintained on the Global Bank’s website.


The DRRRF Gender Working Group was established as a sub-group to the DRRRF Strategy Group to shape the objectives and operational pillars of the individual post-disaster recovery and reconstruction projects gender strategy. The Gender Working Group is supported by the Global Bank’s gender team in the country offices.

The DRRRF Gender Working Group will: (i) review gender aspects of DRRRF-financed activities; (ii) share knowledge and expertise on innovations in gender as they relate to the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”); (iii) propose recommendations on how gender aspects can be better captured in the DRRRF Results Management Framework; and (iv) provide support for gender mainstreaming in DRRRF portfolio management, pipeline development and new initiatives. Interested parties will be invited to participate in project review and decision meetings to provide input on gender-related aspects where relevant, with the approval of the DRRRF Management Committee.

For the background details of the DRRRF Gender Working Group are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Global Bank plays three roles: (1) Manager (to carry out fiduciary responsibilities as set out in the Global Bank DRRRF Administration Agreement), (2) The DRRRF Secretariat (a small team to support the DRRRF Steering Committee and DRRRF Technical Advisory Committee and facilitate communications between the DRRRF Steering Committee and the other partners of DRRRF), and (3) Supervising Entity of DRRRF funded and granted projects. The Global Finance and Investment Corporation (GFIC), the Global Bank Group’s private sector arm, manages the Sustainable Private Sector Disaster Risk Management Window of the DRRRF. Additionally, Global Bank's Development Impact Evaluation Initiative (DIME) has been selected by the DRRRF Steering Committee to implement in-depth impact evaluations for selected DRRRF Sustainable Public Sector Disaster Reduction and Recovery Window projects.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and How we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

An independent DRRRF Technical Committee (TAC) has been appointed by the DRRRF Steering Committee to provide the due diligence screening of submitted proposals as input for decisions to be made by the DRRRF Steering Committee.

The DRRRF Technical Advisory Committee is comprised of members with a high level of experience and technical expertise in helping countries integrate disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change adaptation into development strategies, establish policies and grant investment programs, including post-disaster recovery and reconstruction through the increased implementation of priority housing reconstruction and climate-smart infrastructure projects including the reviewing of Proposals submitted for financing by the requesting countries or entities from the of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”).

The DRRRF Technical Advisory Committee’s role is to provide recommendations to the DRRRF Steering Committee on a set of indicative allocations of financial support through a technical review of the submitted proposals.

For the background details of the DRRRF Technical Committee are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The Management Committee (the "DRRRF Management Committee”) is responsible for overseeing the operations of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”). It also reviews the DRRRF finances and makes recommendations to the DRRRF Secretariat on the management of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The DRRRF Steering Committee (the “DRRRF Steering Committee”) has been established to oversee the overall activities of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”). The DRRRF Steering Committee sets the strategy for the DRRRF, which the DRRRF Management Committee is responsible for implementing. Decisions of the DRRRF Steering Committee are made on a consensus basis and informed by the working groups.

For the Background details of the DRRRF Steering Committee are provided in the Management and Organisation Section of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

The governance and organizational structure of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) includes an Administrator, a DRRRF Board of Directors, a Steering Committee, a Management Committee, a Technical Advisory Board, a Grants Committee, a DRRRF Secretariat and a Trustee, plus three working groups. This sound framework will enable the DRRRF to adapt to changing circumstances and development priorities, with consistency and consensus.

Background details of board members, advisers, technical advisers, experts or persons of similar status to these committees that are participating in the Governance and Oversight of the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund are provided in the Management and Organization Section of the Section of the DRRRF Website.

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Covering all countries of Global Bank’s operations, the Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility is expected to provide preparation and policy dialogue support for public sector lending structures, frequently on a sub-sovereign, corporate finance in the following sectors and subsectors:                                    

  • Energy: electricity generation; electricity transmission or distribution; natural gas transmission or distribution;

  • Information and communication: telecommunications networks, mobile and wireless network, broadband cable networks, data centers, last-mile internet connectivity;

  • Water and sanitation: water supply; wastewater and sewerage; irrigation and drainage; solid waste management;

  • Transportation: airports; ports; railways; mass transit; highways;

  • Urban Infrastructure: such as urban transport sector and related infrastructure including street rehabilitation, a concession for local road maintenance, as well as support for the preparation of a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (“SUMP”).

  • Environment Management Projects: Clean Heating Project, Hydropower Rehabilitation Project, Scaling Up Rural Sanitation and Water Supply Program, Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Program

The Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window will focus on building strong national and regional and subregional economic integration objectives and policy dialogue-driven replicability of project structures based on commercialisation, corporatisation and institutional strengthening. It will also ensure that projects are well structured and bankable, responding to these needs identified by both the Global Bank and the international consensus on infrastructure. Sustainable Public Sector Infrastructure Window is expected to prepare approximately 15-20 projects per year when operating at full capacity.


The Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund – An Umbrella Trust Fund (the “Trust Fund,” “GB DRRRF,” or “DRRRF”) will feature three windows: 1) a Sustainable Public Sector Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Window (for public sector projects); 2) a ‘Sustainable DRM Window’ (the DRR Window) which is published separately on the DRRRF’s website at www.gbDRRRF.org; and  3) the Crisis Response Window

To learn more about the Global Bank Disaster Risk Reduction and Reconstruction Fund, what we do and how we do it and Management and Organisation, visit the About DRRRF Section of the DRRRF Website.

For information about the Global Bank, please visit http://gbdrrrf.org/about-us/who-we-are

Project preparation typically costs between 5%–10% of the project’s capital cost, and can be financed via grants, risk capital, and loans.

Project preparation costs in developing countries typically range between 5%–10% of the total project investment. The project preparation cost depends on the project’s size and complexity whether several regional governments are involved, how prolonged the preparation process becomes, and the extent to which upstream preparation is complete. Clearly, the more efficient project preparation is, the greater the leveraging effect of a dollar spent in project preparation on infrastructure delivered to the benefit of end users.

Indicators suggest that although the pipeline is strengthening, it falls well short of projected needs.

There are no concrete figures to accurately and exhaustively quantify the magnitude of projects in development. Only a few countries publish data on projects in the prelaunch or investigatory stages. These tend to be countries with well-established track records of public–private partnerships (PPPs) in infrastructure, such as Canada, the UK, and Australia. Otherwise, publicly available data sources are usually either retrospective, cataloguing historical public or private participation in infrastructure, or quantify the future need for infrastructure expenditure in aggregate terms or by sector.

The available data highlight the significant gap between historical expenditures (government and private sector combined) and future needs: worldwide expenditures on infrastructure need to more than double by 2020. Most indicators suggest that a step-function increase in expenditure of this magnitude is unlikely to generate the desired results. Where noticeable increases in infrastructure expenditure are evident in the pipeline, the increase over historical expenditure is in the 20%–40% range. A closer look at the cases of Africa, Brazil, India, and Indonesia follows.

 

Lack of financing is not exclusively, or even mainly, the issue.

The global financial crisis of 2008 has reduced bank debt available to finance infrastructure projects, as well as increased pricing, stricter lending covenants, and shorter tenors. In particular, several large European banks have deleveraged and retreated from markets in which they once played important roles.

Simultaneously, however, non-bank lending for infrastructure is taking on a new momentum.1 Infrastructure, sovereign wealth, and pension funds are looking for asset classes with steady, inflation-adjusted income streams, and development banks are working to expand the number of vehicles available to access infrastructure.

A critical obstacle slowing the flow of private capital to infrastructure is the lack of properly structured, bankable projects.2 Properly analyzed (with detailed demand, engineering, and costing analysis) and well-structured projects are able to find financing.3 This does not imply that these projects are immune to uncertainty and risk. However, inherent uncertainties are clearly identified for investors to make calculated assumptions on the probabilities of expected outcomes, translate uncertainty into risk, and factor this into an expected return.

In practice, many projects do not have an adequate fact base built during preliminary work and potential investors face ambiguity (rather than uncertainty), which cannot be quantified and translated into a risk–return tradeoff. Frequently, infrastructure projects do not attract funding because they lack the adequate level of study necessary to establish their bankability, and projects that are not deemed bankable fail to attract more than cursory investor attention.

In short, funding challenges are real and significant. However, funding sources and mechanisms are largely responsive to the depth and quality of the project pipeline, rather than the key determinants of it. The remainder of this paper will focus on this critical issue of the challenge.

1InfraNews (2013). “How the Infrastructure Debt Market is Evolving to Accommodate a Growing Institutional Appetite.”
2World Bank (2013). Issues Note (No. 6) for Consideration by G20: “Long-Term Financing of Infrastructure: A Look at Non-financial Constraints.”
3Latin Finance (2010). “Infrastructure Investment: The Big Shortfall.”

 

Insufficient focus on planning and preparation are significant impediments.

The infrastructure project pipeline is lacking in both quantity and quality. In simple terms, the demand for infrastructure is not being translated into projects (quantity); for projects that are originated, either the fundamentals drive too high a risk premium or insufficient preparation is conducted for them to be considered bankable (quality). Exacerbating this further, projects take too long to prepare.

The Global Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 trillion per annum to 2020 is required by developing countries to keep pace with consumer and producer demand for infrastructure. To keep pace with projected global GDP growth, the infrastructure financing gap increases to an estimated US$57 trillion over the period to 2030 (MDB Working Group on Infrastructure, 2011). Alternatively, the World Economic Forum estimates that close to US$2 trillion per annum will be required to meet the infrastructure needs of developing economies by 2030 (WEF, 2012).

By consensus estimates from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to the Boston Consulting Group and the World Bank Group, the estimated annual global infrastructure investment need is about US$3.7 trillion – of which only about $2.7 trillion is currently met on an annual basis. The figure does not include ‘development goals’ and emerging market economies (EMEs) would need an additional US$1 trillion per year until 2020 just to keep pace with the demands of urbanisation, growth, climate change and global integration.

This much-discussed “infrastructure gap” is large and it is widening. Even if fiscal conditions in developed and emerging economies improve, the need introduced by the infrastructure financing gap is unlikely to be met from public sources alone. This generates an expectation that private capital and user charges must be mobilized to fill these gaps.

Infrastructure is key to tackling poverty and promoting inclusive growth. Infrastructure helps improve access to basic services, especially for poor people, links producers to markets and connects countries to the opportunities in the global economy. Well-functioning infrastructure is essential to overcome bottlenecks to growth in emerging and developing economies, and as an enabler of private sector led growth. No country has developed without access to well-functioning infrastructure. At a time when the outlook for global growth is disappointing, investment in infrastructure can play an important role in boosting short-term demand, as well as bolstering longer-term supply capacity.


Yes. Global Bank values transparency and is committed to increased access to information under the public communications policy (PCP). An essential part of our institutional governance, the public communications policy promotes proactive external relations and recognizes the right of people to seek, access, and impart information about our operations.

Global Bank's commitment to Open Bank Strategy1 is part of the Bank's efforts to foster greater openness and accountability, to provide domestic and international firms and citizens with more opportunities to learn about Global Bank and participate in international development, to drive innovation and economic opportunities for all, and at the same time create a more cost effective, efficient and responsive organization.

The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Today’s amazing mix of cloud computing, ever-smarter mobile devices, and collaboration tools is changing the consumer landscape and bleeding into Global Bank Group as both an opportunity and a challenge. Global Bank Group will deliver and receive digital information and services anytime, anywhere and on any device safely and securely.

Global Bank Group Action Plan on Open Bank Strategy sets out our commitments for the Open Bank Partnership, which we will achieve over a three-year period through the effective and prudent use of resources. It is structured along the four streams of our Open Bank Strategy: Open Information2, Open Data3, open Knowledge4, and Open Dialogue5.

The Global Bank Group portal, www.Global-Bank.org, is expected to be fully operational by September 2016. The portal initially will cover 35 subjects in climate resilient infrastructure, climate finance and economic and human development data on more than 50 countries by 2021. The portal is expected to attract a broad range of users, including policymakers, development practitioners, infrastructure and infrastructure finance practitioners (public, private, and nongovernment sectors), trade associations, researchers, students, and journalists. The Web Site will be updated frequently, and will feature blogs and discussion forums.

 
1The Open Bank Strategy is a strategy adopted by the Global Bank to demonstrate the Organization’s commitment to making it a more open, transparent and accountable entity. Through it, Global Bank information and knowledge will be publicly available through numerous accompanying initiatives such as Open Data, Open knowledge Repository and Open Finances, to name a few.
2The Global Bank's Open Information initiative is intended to provide all interested parties and stakeholders with openness and transparency in development, from tools and knowledge resources to Bank-wide initiatives.
3The Global Bank collects and processes large amounts of data and generates them on the basis of economic models. These data and models gradually will be made available to the public in a way that encourages reuse, whereas the recent publications describing them are available as open access under a Creative Commons Attribution License. The Global Bank's Open Data initiative is intended to provide all users with access to Global Bank data about development in countries around the globe.
4The Global Bank will hosts the Open Knowledge Repository (OKR) as an official open access repository for its research outputs and knowledge products.
5The success of Global Bank works depends on the ability of all affected parties to freely express their concerns. The Global Bank Group has adopted high standards of stakeholder engagement—to ensure that our clients achieve the best possible development outcomes. All our country strategies and projects are based on dialogue with stakeholders, including civil society.

 

We believe that sharing information is essential for sustainable development, so we seek out opportunities to talk about our work with the widest possible audience. Access to information stimulates public debate, broadens understanding of development issues, and enhances transparency and accountability in the development process. It also strengthens public support for development efforts, resulting in improvements in the quality of our assistance. Therefore, it is our policy to be open about our activities. To that end, we&;ve expanded the information that we make available to the public and have streamlined access to it. Project Documents, including environmental and social assessments, are available throughout the Project Cycle, as well as our operations results, research and reviews. Approval is often withheld for projects, when project documents are not posted according to disclosure requirements. In addition, information is disseminated globally through the Public Information Centers (PIC). Public Information Centers staff members develop proactive outreach programs within their countries.Global Bank Group’s Public Information Centers disseminate development-related information and documentation on Global Bank Group operations and research to the public. The goal is to encourage dialogue, to enable people to make informed decisions on matters that affect their livelihood, and to encourage them to participate in their country’s development. These centers facilitate the production of documents in local languages, and they develop and maintain Web sites in local languages. Through public lectures, seminars, workshops, and Web casts, Global Bank Group and partner institutions worldwide make information on economic and social development widely available. Public Information Centers operate in capital cities and satellite centers. By the year 2025 centers will be located in every country in which the Global Bank Group operates.

In order to earn trust, credibility and legitimacy in the eyes of its stakeholders, the Executive Board of Global Bank Group has adopted an open and transparent selection process for the selection of its senior leadership that results in the most competent person being appointed regardless of their nationality.In 2014, the Global Bank Group introduced a policy implementing transparent and merit-based assessment in the selection of all Global Bank Group agency heads and other office holders working in, or in conjunction with, Global Bank Group agencies.The Global Bank Group sets out a number of factors that must be considered in determining merit. These include the applicant&;s education, skills, knowledge, experience, past work performance and years of continuous service in the public service.The Global Bank Group distinguishes between permanent and longer-term temporary appointments and those that are seasonal or short-term temporary appointments. Specifically, permanent appointments and temporary appointments exceeding seven months are to be the result of a process designed to appraise the knowledge, skills and abilities of eligible applicants. Employees with permanent and longer-term appointments form part of the core career professional on which Global Bank Group relies for advice and expertise. It makes sense that the Global Bank Group sets a more rigorous standard for making these types of appointments. These appointments may require recruitment to attract applicants. Individuals are assessed for merit against the selection criteria required for the job. A competitive process allows applicants to be rated and ranked relative to one another, so that those who are successful are the best-qualified candidates.Auxiliary, seasonal appointments or those for temporary periods of seven months or less still need to be based on a consideration of individual merit, but they do not require a competitive process.The recruitment and selection processes that result in merit-based appointments include these essential elements: a process used to recruit, select and assess that is transparent and fair; an assessment that is relevant to the job; and decisions that are reasonable. Merit-based hiring takes into consideration both legislation and hiring policy. Where applicable, requirements of collective agreements are also considered. These elements support a results-based approach to staffing and are considered as part of the audit and review of appointment decisions undertaken by the Office of the Merit Commissioner.

Mr. Ron Nechemia, an American national, is the 1st President of the Global Bank Group. He was selected by the Board of the Executive Directors for a five-year renewable term.Mr. Nechemia Serves as the Chairman of the Board of Governors and President of the Global Bank Group. He is chairman of the Bank’s Board of Executive Directors and president of a group of five interrelated organizations:

  • The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIDR);
  • The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GFIDR); 
  • The Global Finance Corporation (GFC); 
  • The GFC Asset Management Company (AMC); and 
  • The Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency (GBIGA)

The Executive Vice Presidents of The Global Finance Corporation and The Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency report to the President of the Global Bank GroupFor the 2013 selection, the Executive Board adopted a procedure that allowed the selection of all senior management including the President and the Managing Director in an open, merit-based, and transparent manner that results in the most competent person being appointed regardless of their nationality.

The Global Bank is not a bank in the traditional sense, but rather a specialized agency. While the Global Bank lends and manages some of its funds much like a commercial bank,it is different in several important ways. First,the Global Bank lends to developing countries at lower rates than traditional markets would give to borrowing governments. Loans are used to support social and economic development projects in middle-and low-income countries. Unlike a commercial bank, Global Bank’s financial objective is not to maximize profit but to earn adequate income to ensure its financial strength and to sustain its development activities. Repayment periods on Global Bank loans are generally longer than commercial banks.The financial support and advice that the Global Bank provides largely toits members and non-members countries is designed to help them fight poverty.Commercial banks manage deposit accounts, such as checking and savings accounts, for individuals and businesses. They make loans to the public using the money held on deposit.

Global Bank consists of both a hard-loan-window and a soft-loan-window. The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction is the-hard-loan-window provide loans at market-based rates to lower and middle-income developing countries governments. The soft-loan-window is The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction1 (the “GFIDR”) provide loans on a concessional basis to countries unable to borrow international capital markets— together are commonly known as the “Global Bank.”
 
The Global Bank provides low-interest loans, interest-free credits, and grants to developing countries. There’s always a government (or “sovereign”) guarantee of repayment subject to general conditions. The Global Bank is directed to make loans for projects. These loans must have a reasonable likelihood of being repaid. The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction was created to offer an alternative loan option. The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction loans are free of interest and offered with grace period before the country receiving the loan needs to begin repayment. These loans are often called soft loans.
 
Countries usually graduate out of The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction to The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction and eventually completely out of Global Bank. 
 
1Eligible Global Bank members and non-members may receive support from BIDR, the Global Fundorboth.Currently,85 countries are eligible for BIDR lending, 77 countries are eligible for Global Fund financing, and 18 countries are eligible for a blend of BIDR and the Global Fund financing (BIDR2014;Global Fund2015). The current operational cut off for the Global Fund eligibility is a per capita defined as GNI per capita below an established threshold of $1,215 in fiscal year 2015 (with an exception for small island states). That said, there is no automatic graduation rule linked to per-capita income — the operational cut off is only a trigger for initiating broader discussions about continuing Global Fund eligibility.

The Global Bank Group has set two goals for the world to achieve by 2030:

  • End extreme poverty by decreasing the percentage of people living on less than $1.25 a day to no more than 3%
  • Promote shared prosperity by fostering the income growth of the bottom 40% for every country

Global Bank Group in partnership with member and non-governments, independent specialists and other financial institutions is focused on delivering projects that create economic and development impact.The Global Bank Group&;s activities are focused on developing countries, in fields such as human development (e.g. education, health), agriculture and rural development (e.g. irrigation and rural services), environmental protection (e.g. pollution reduction, establishing and enforcing regulations), infrastructure (e.g. roads, urban regeneration, and electricity), large industrial construction projects, and governance (e.g. anti-corruption, institutions development). Some of our projects are co-financed with governments, other multilateral institutions, commercial banks, export credit agencies, and private sector investors. GBG will also provide or facilitate financing through trust fund partnerships with bilateral and multilateral donors.

The Global Bank is a full-fledged private sector global development bank in formation - the world’s second global development bank - positioned next to the World Bank and the preeminent regional development banks (MDBs1). The Global Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. Global Bank provides financial and technical support to developing countries to help them strengthen economic management and reduce poverty. Global Bank provide a new channel through which developing country governments could borrow to finance economically productive climate resilient infrastructure assets and sustainable development while still remaining within prudent levels of debt.

We also provide direct assistance to private enterprises of developing countries through equity investments and loans.

For more information about the Global Bank, what we do and how we do it, please go to the About Us section of our website.

 
1The Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) are institutions that provide financial support and professional advice for economic and social development activities in developing countries. The MDBs provide financial and technical support to developing countries to help them strengthen economic management and reduce poverty. Together, the MDBs provide support to the world's poorest in every corner of the globe, strengthening institutions, rebuilding states, addressing the effects of climate change, and fostering economic growth and entrepreneurship.

Our headquarters is located in Newport Coast, California, USA.

The current primary focus of the Global Bank Group centers on six strategic themes: 

  • The poorest countries. Poverty reduction and sustainable growth in the poorest countries, especially in Africa.
  • Postconflict and fragile states. Solutions to the special challenges of postconflict countries and fragile states.
  • Middle-income countries. Development solutions with customized services as well as financing for middle-income countries.
  • Global public goods. Addressing regional and global issues that cross national borders, such as climate change, and trade.
  • The Arab world. Greater development and opportunity in the Arab world.
  • Knowledge and learning. Leveraging the best global knowledge to support development.

The mission of Global Bank Group (*the “Bank Group”) is to support the economic and social development efforts of the less developed countries as they seek achievement of internationally agreed upon development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration, and to implement the recommendations of major United Nations conferences and summits. The goals lay out a blueprint for Global Bank, setting its priorities and measuring its results. GlobalBank Group’s strategic priorities are aligned to advance the United Nations’ global priorities.

The Global Bank Group (GBG or the Bank Group) is composed of five separate institutions with a common mission and distinct mandates towards its fulfillment: The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIDR); The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GFIDR); the Global Finance Corporation (GFC); the GFC Asset Management Company (AMC); and the Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency (GBIGA). Each agency is owned and operated by the Global Bank Group.The Global Bank Group's activities are focused on developing countries, in fields such as human development (e.g. education, health), agriculture and rural development (e.g. irrigation and rural services), environmental protection (e.g. pollution reduction, establishing and enforcing regulations), infrastructure (e.g. roads, urban regeneration, and electricity), large industrial construction projects, and governance (e.g. anti-corruption, institutions development).

Development projects undertaken with Global Bank financing typically include money to pay for materials and consulting services. Global Bank, like the multilateral development banks (MDBs)1, provides business opportunities for business and other companies by funding projects in developing countries in a wide range of sectors. According to some estimates, multilateral development banks lending and grants between 2011 and 2015 could exceed $500 billion. These contracts are awarded primarily through international competitive bidding processes. However, Global Bank allows the borrowing country to give some preference to domestic firms in awarding contracts for Global Bank-financed projects in order to help spur development; and increasingly, more contracts are being awarded domestically, on a noncompetitive basis.  1The term "multilateral development banks" includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association, International Finance Corporation, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, African Development Bank, African Development Fund, Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, Bank for Economic Cooperation and Development in the Middle East and North Africa and Inter-American Investment Corporation.

Global Bank Group’s aims to work with its borrowing developing countries so that they can achieve equitable and sustainable economic growth in their national economies and find effective solutions to pressing regional and global problems in economic development and environmental sustainability, all with a view to overcoming poverty and improving standards of living. It pursues this goal primarily by providing financing, risk management products and other financial services, access to experts and a pool of knowledge in development-related disciplines so that borrowing countries can pool, administer and prioritize resources they dedicate to development-related objectives.

The term "Global Bank" refers only to the Bank for International Development and Reconstruction and the Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (Global Fund). The term "Global Bank Group" incorporates five closely associated entities that work collaboratively toward poverty reduction: Global Finance Corporate (GFC),To learn more about each institution&;s role, visit the

Strengthening the results orientation of the Global Bank Group has been a key priority to ensure that loans and donors contributions are generating positive and lasting results on the ground. For example, Global Bank Group has created special structure in Global Bank Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility to assess results and is now working to ensure that lessons from projects are incorporated into new projects and programmes.Results are measured and managed at several levels, including by tracking outcomes at the project level and linking disbursements to the achievement of specific targets. In addition, the Global Bank will report on results through the following three publicly available forms; 1) an annual report known as the “Corporate Scorecard”; 2) an annual report prepared by an Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) housed at the Global Bank Group; and 3) a management action record, which tracks the adoption of the Independent Evaluation Bank Group’s recommendations. These transparent assessments of performance ensure that loan and donor’s dollars are being invested wisely, and will lead to long-term improvements in development results.

Our Anticorruption Policy requires all staff and parties carrying out activities financed by Global Bank Group (e.g., bidders, consulting firms, consultants, contractors, and suppliers) to adhere to the highest financial and ethical standards. The Office of Anticorruption and Integrity (OAI) conducts investigations and audits related to project procurement, and raises awareness on anticorruption issues.Contact the Office of Anticorruption and Integrity to report concerns or evidence that corruption, fraud, coercion, collusion, abuse, conflict of interest, or obstructive practice may have occurred or is occurring related to any Global Bank Group-financed activity.

The Global Bank Group has set two goals for the world to achieve by 2030:

  • End extreme poverty by decreasing the percentage of people living on less than $1.25 a day to no more than 3%
  • Promote shared prosperity by fostering the income growth of the bottom 40% for every country

Global Bank Group in partnership with member and non-governments, independent specialists and other financial institutions is focused on delivering projects that create economic and development impact.The Global Bank Group's activities are focused on developing countries, in fields such as human development (e.g. education, health), agriculture and rural development (e.g. irrigation and rural services), environmental protection (e.g. pollution reduction, establishing and enforcing regulations), infrastructure (e.g. roads, urban regeneration, and electricity), large industrial construction projects, and governance (e.g. anti-corruption, institutions development). Some of our projects are cofinanced with governments, other multilateral institutions, commercial banks, export credit agencies, and private sector investors.We also provide or facilitate financing through trust fund partnerships with bilateral and multilateral donors.

Mr. Ron Nechemia is a founding member of the Global Bank Group and its various affiliate development financial institutions and the founding father of private sector development banking.

The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIDR)The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIDR) offers loans, guarantees and analytical and advisory services to middle-income countries and creditworthy poorer countries in Latin America, Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. It provides its clients with access to capital on favourable terms in larger volumes, with longer maturities and in a more sustainable manner than the market. BIDR raises most of its funding by selling bonds on the international capital markets. The surplus generated from BIDR lending is to a large extent used to extend grants and loans on very favourable terms to low-income countries through The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction. The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GFIDR)The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction provides grants and loans with very long maturity period and no interest to the poorest countries to help cover the cost of lifting people out of poverty, including the cost of providing essential services in education, health water and sanitation.The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction credits are granted to developing countries with a GDP per capita of less than $1,135, and which do not – or only to a limited extend – have access to commercial lending and The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction loans.

The Global Bank Group combines the characteristics of a multilateral development bank  with those of a private financial institution.

Global Bank’s decision-making structure consists of the Board of Governors, the Board of Executive Directors and the President and staff. The Board of Governors is the highest decision-making authority. Members of the Board Governors are appointed by the shareholders of Global Bank for five-year terms, which are renewable. The Board of Governors may delegate authority to the Board of Executive Directors to exercise any of its powers, with the exception of certain powers enumerated in Global Bank’s Articles.In accordance with its Articles, members of the Board of Executive Directors are appointed or elected every two years. The Board is composed of 22 Executive Directors. These Executive Directors are neither officers nor staff of Global bank. The President of Global Bank, Ron Nechemia, is the only member of the Board of Executive Directors from management, serving as a non-voting member and as Chairman of the Board.

The term “Global Bank” refers to The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIDR) and The Global Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GFIDR).  The Global Bank Group refers to the BIDR and GFIDR, as well as the Global Finance Corporation (GFC), the GFC Asset Management Company (AMC); and the Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency (GBIGA).The Bank for International Development and Reconstruction (BIRD)/Global Bank: Lends to governments of middle-income and creditworthy low-income countries.The Global Development Fund for International Development and Reconstruction (GDFIDR): provides interest-free loans-called credits-and grants to governments of the poorest countries.Global Finance Corporation (GFC): focuses exclusively on the private sector, helping developing countries achieve sustainable growth.The Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency (GBIGA) provides noncommercial guarantees (insurance) for foreign direct investment in developing countries. It addresses concerns about investment environments and perceptions of risk, which often inhibit investment, by providing political risk insurance.GFC Asset Management Company (AMC) mobilizes and manages third-party funds for investment in emerging markets. It manages funds on behalf of a wide variety of institutional investors, including sovereign funds, pension funds, and development finance institutions. 

The Contact page can provide you with this information.

You can also find Global Bank Group experts on the Who’s Who page in the section. Since only a portion of the knowledge and expertise of the Global Bank Group's staff is found on these pages, please contact us via our to locate an expert on a subject that is not specifically listed.

Four aspects are critical to the Global Bank Group’s approach to infrastructure in Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan:

  1. Address the core access agenda in the following infrastructure sectors: transport, energy, water, and Information and Communication Technologies for development;
     
  2. Maximize effectiveness through a focused approach to complex cross-sectoral issues such as the role of infrastructure in climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts, the role of public–private partnership (PPP) in the provision of infrastructure services, and new ways to provide infrastructure support for rural-urban integration and development;
     
  3. Focus on social and environmental objectives in addition to the economic/financial viability, and ensure access to affordable infrastructure services through a platform of strong governance; and
     
  4. Leverage Global Bank Group financing through:
  • Support to governments to create a market environment supportive of private investment;
  • Direct support for private financing of infrastructure;
  • Increased advocacy to ramp up harmonized donor financing; and
  • Systematic use of financial products that address the financial risks faced by clients and reduce the overall project costs
 

The scale and reach of Global Bank Group supports to developing countries allows them to trial non-traditional forms of development assistance, which, if successful, can be integrated into the wider suite of programs. We focus on three models of assistance that, while being relatively mature in the developed world, are emerging as important mechanisms for promoting greater private sector involvement in infrastructure in developing countries: private equity funds, public-private partnerships, and output-based aid.

Private equity funds

By investing in a private equity fund, rather than in projects directly, Global Bank Group can promote greater reputational credibility, development credentials and good governance, whilst drawing on the deal-making capabilities of the private sector. With these benefits, Global Bank Group argues they can ‘catalyse’ or ‘mobilise’ greater private sector involvement in financing infrastructure in developing countries.

Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs)

Public-private partnerships are long-term relationships between private contractors and the government to provide for the construction, operation and maintenance of infrastructure assets (English, 2006). The OECD (2011) identifies the key features distinguishing a public-private partnerships approach as including: a focus on purchasing services rather than assets; clear specification of outputs; appropriate risk of asset performance being borne by the private party; and assessments of value for money.

Output-based Aid

Output-Based Aid (OBA) is an approach designed to increase access to and delivery of basic services (outputs) to people living in poverty using performance-based incentives, rewards, or subsidies. Output-Based Aid links the payment of aid to the delivery of specific services. Under an Output-Based Aid scheme, service delivery is contracted out to a third party, which receives a payment from Global Bank to either complement or replace user charging. The third party is responsible for ‘pre-financing’ the projects until services are delivered. The subsidy is performance-based, meaning that most of the subsidy is paid only after the services have been delivered and independently verified. By focusing on service outputs, Output-Based Aid represents a change from traditional methods of aid that focus on inputs to service providers.

The Global Bank’s Output-Based Aid program attempts to improve the delivery of basic infrastructure and social services to the poor by integrating the Output-Based Aid approach across financing operations.

 

Global Bank Group is evaluating how their activities impact on infrastructure development in developing countries and considering ways to expand their involvement. Global Bank led the preparation of a paper on the role of Global Bank Group in support of long-term financing. Infrastructure development often requires long-term financing given the high construction costs and long asset lives of facilities like road, ports and power stations.

Chelsky and Morel considered the ‘additionality’ provided by development banks to long-term financing. This included whether a project would have gone ahead without official-sector involvement which, if so, would represent a waste of development banks resources. This concept of ‘additionality’ is also referred to as ‘catalysing’, ‘mobilising’ or ‘crowding in’6 new resources. The extent of additionality development banks provide for infrastructure financing cannot easily be proven (or indeed disproven, such as when an investor says s/he would not have invested if not for the presence of an development banks).

Global Bank Group identifies a variety of ways in which Global Bank Group contribute to long-term investment, which we have grouped into four basic categories, as follows.

  • Direct financial assistance from Global Bank Group
     
  • Indirect financial assistance –Global Bank Group as catalyst
     
  • Non-finanicial Global Bank Group project assistance
     
  • Global Bank Group improving the investment climate

The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 trillion per annum to 2020 is required by developing countries to keep pace with consumer and producer demand for infrastructure. To keep pace with projected global GDP growth, the infrastructure financing gap increases to an estimated US$57 trillion over the period to 2030 (MDB Working Group on Infrastructure, 2011). Alternatively, the World Economic Forum (WEF ) estimates that close to US$2 trillion per annum will be required to meet the infrastructure needs of developing economies by 2030 (WEF, 2012).

For the Asia-Pacific, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) estimates that $750 billion in financing each year will be required by 2020 to meet the region’s infrastructure needs (ADB, 2011).

Global Bank Group needs to improve its agility in responding to client and stakeholder demands at several levels, including:

  1. Increase  joint work, such as joint Global Bank- Global Finance Corporation sub-national transactions and Global Bank- Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency -Global Finance Corporation collaboration on large and complex infrastructure projects, particularly energy sector projects in Africa; joint advisory services and upstream Analytical and Advisory Activities; and develop rules of joint engagement for common Global Bank Group product lines;
     
  2. Reduce the non-financial costs of doing business in high priority sectors, including hydropower;
     
  3. Improve results monitoring and evaluation of the sustainable infrastructure interventions;
     
  4. Increase the utilization of the Global Bank Group financial expertise and access to multiple financial resources for transactions packaging for high priority objectives, such as the mitigation of sovereign and natural catastrophic risks; and
     
  5. Maximize the benefits from the Sustainable Development Network Vice-presidency integration, including through training and recruitment.
  1. There has to be progress in supporting developing countries as they meet the enormous lags in the access agenda of core infrastructure sectors (transport, water, energy, and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)). Advances in this core access agenda requires focused attention on key cross-cutting issues: climate change, the role of the private sector, regional disparities in infrastructure service delivery, rapidly growing demand for infrastructure in urbanizing economies, affordability, and the need to support and build upon technological advances;
     
  2. There is a need to embed sustainability in infrastructure services going beyond “do-no-harm” objectives. In addition to the traditional economic and financial viability of infrastructure services, the design of infrastructure programs needs to support environmental sustainability and social inclusion: the “triple bottom line;”
     
  3. It is paramount to ensure support for a strong governance framework for infrastructure services: efficient and effective use of public and private resources, strong results monitoring systems to measure the access and sustainability outcomes of infrastructure spending, and effective anti-corruption action programs;
     
  4. The Global Bank Group can leverage its financing by mobilizing additional private financing and harmonized aid resources for infrastructure, using its platform to support developing countries. 

Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan has been prepared as an umbrella framework that brings together the lessons of the multilateral development bank’s (MDB) infrastructure experience from the past decades and the more recent achievements in public-private partnership and infrastructure development. The umbrella framework character of Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan provides broad orientation to the many individual efforts to increase infrastructure support by the different institutions of the Global Bank Group through multiple product lines.
 

The proposed Global Bank Group Strategy recognizes the diversity in development needs of developing countries, which calls for different responses. Capacity in accessing advisory services and knowledge products and in using them to design and implement infrastructure projects and programs is critical for most middle-income countries. However, for low-income countries and fragile states, the situation is quite different. The institutional, organizational, and human capacities of most of them are weak or have been destroyed by wars or civil strife.

The Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan “emphasizes the potential impact of bringing together the different members of the Global Bank Group as they scale up their operation, with our respective skills and instruments, in advancing transformational projects in developing countries. It looks at what is required—in terms of partnership, knowledge, advice, and projects—for infrastructure to accelerate growth and even shift client countries toward a more sustainable development trajectory. It also supports a vision of who will finance infrastructure solutions.

The Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan defines Global Bank Group engagement in infrastructure across sectors in order to respond to demands for more cross-cutting and integrated solutions. The Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan attempts to address these new trends in an integrative fashion, maximizing effectiveness through cross sectoral synergies, leveraging resources from multiple sources, and mainstreaming sustainability (addressing economic/financial, environmental, and social concerns). It outlines three main pillars of future Global Bank Group infrastructure investment. The first is to invest in typical infrastructure projects, “while increasing effectiveness in the areas of poverty, governance, gender and knowledge."

The second pillar is a new focus on large “transformational” projects that “maximise green, regional, and inclusive/broader development benefits”. These will also represent “points of leverage in the universe of potential infrastructure investments opportunities”, meaning projects that involve a greater diversity of financing sources such as donor governments, including new middle-income donors, international mechanisms such as climate funds, and the private sector.

The third pillar aims to bring in “more private sector financing”. The Global Finance Corporation (GFC), the Global Bank Group’s private sector arm, is creating new investment vehicles such as private equity funds and other types of funds for infrastructure to “ramp up” business, while the Global Bank Investment Guarantee Agency (GBIGA), the Global Bank Group’s risk insurance agency, will “scale-up its guarantee support to the infrastructure sector".

The Global Bank Group is also implementing an action plan to double private sector engagement in public–private partnership (PPPs) in infrastructure. This strategy will ensure that Global Bank Group response for infrastructure financing at a time when governments are fiscally constrained and official development assistance flows have been reduced. There is an increased need to bring the private sector in the equation.

Countries around the world are confronted with the challenge of satisfying their citizens’ demand for high-quality infrastructure services, while facing severe fiscal constraints. The importance of infrastructure sustainability has gained increasing room in the global discussion. Indeed, infrastructure sustainability is at the core of the global sustainable development agenda: 6 out of the 17 preliminary Sustainable Development Goals deal directly with infrastructure. While the concept of sustainable infrastructure has been traditionally associated with building environmentally sound, or “green” infrastructure, it becomes increasingly evident as each day passes that it reaches well beyond the environmental dimension.

Although there is no final consensus on what sustainable infrastructure entails – as evidenced by the multiplicity of rating and assessment schemes produced in the past few years – there is some agreement with the idea that a comprehensive approach to sustainability should seek to devise infrastructure that is tailored to local social, economic and ecological environment and caters the need for infrastructure services in the most effective and efficient way. This requires not only assessing and addressing environmental risks. Sustainability also requires assuring financial resources to maintain infrastructure over its entire lifespan, considering users’ preferences and needs in the design (for maximum effectiveness), and understanding the institutional and political dynamics in order to guarantee projects’ endurance through the political cycle.

Global Bank Group support to infrastructure is accompanied by dramatic changes in the external environment. Eight trends in particular have been affecting, and will continue to affect, the way infrastructure services are planned, financed, and operated:

  • Climate change;
  • The globalization of trade and services;
  • The growing regional disparities in the context of rapid urbanization and decentralization;
  • Changing global financial conditions, including increases in private investment in infrastructure in emerging markets;
  • An increasingly complex global aid architecture;
  • Rising energy prices;
  • Potential breakthroughs in technologies for delivering infrastructure services in a more sustainable manner; and
  • The food prices crisis. 

These global trends, together with the still large infrastructure service delivery gaps—884 million people without access to safe water, 1.6 billion without electricity, and 2.5 billion without sanitation and the estimated one billion people without easy access to an all- weather road —caused the Global Bank Group to analyze its role in infrastructure.

The growing awareness of the impact of the infrastructure deficit and its impact on developing countries’ poverty reduction and economic growth prospects prompted calls for the Global Bank to engage and scale up its assistance. Upon request from the Board of Executive Directors, Management launched the Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan (GBSIAP) in 2016 for the FY16-21 period.

The total demand for infrastructure investment and maintenance from developing countries is estimated at over US$900 billion per annum. Even at the current Global Bank’s financing target of US$5 to US$7 billion per annum, plus planned future increases, direct Global Bank Group financing would remain modest relative to total needs.

The Global Bank Group estimates that by the end of the Global Bank Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan, its direct financing support for infrastructure investments will reach US$45 billion. We also anticipate that these amounts will leverage an additional US$50 to US$75 billion in public and private financing for infrastructure.

It is a strategic framework that outlines how the Global Bank Group ("GBG" or the "Bank Group") and its affiliates will expand its lending and non-lending activities over the next five years to respond to the critical needs for infrastructure financing in developing countries.

The Global Bank Group plans to use its financing strength, risk mitigation activities, knowledge capital, and environmental and social safeguards to help countries expand their infrastructure base and maintain facilities in order to respond to the needs of hundreds of millions of poor people in developing countries. We expect that up to US$45 billion in funding will be mobilized over a five-year period via Global Bank Group financing, Official Development Assistance, and other public and private sources.

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